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Open AccessEditorial

Editorial—Role of DNA Methyltransferases in the Epigenome

1
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biochemistry and Technical Biochemistry, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
2
Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(8), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10080574
Received: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 25 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of DNA Methyltransferases in the Epigenome)
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PDF [191 KB, uploaded 6 August 2019]

Abstract

DNA methylation, a modification found in most species, regulates chromatin functions in conjunction with other epigenome modifications, such as histone post-translational modifications and non-coding RNAs. In mammals, DNA methylation has essential roles in development by orchestrating the generation and maintenance of the phenotypic diversity of human cell types. This Special Issue of Genes contains eight review articles, which cover several aspects of epigenome regulation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), the enzymes responsible for the introduction of DNA methylation. The manuscripts present the most recent advances regarding the structure and function of DNMTs, their targeting and regulation by interacting factors and chromatin modifications, and the roles of DNMTs in mammalian development and human diseases. However, many aspects of these important enzymes are still insufficiently understood. Potential directions of future work are the regulation of DNMTs by post-translational modifications and their connection to cellular signaling and second messenger cascades on one hand and to large multifactorial epigenetic chromatin circuits on the other. Additionally, technical advancements, including the availability of designer nucleosomes and the rapid development of cryo-electron microscopy are expected to trigger breakthrough discoveries in this exciting field. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA methyltransferase function; DNA methyltransferase mechanism; DNA methyltransferase regulation; DNA methyltransferase structure; DNMT1; DNMT3A; DNMT3B; DNA Methylation DNA methyltransferase function; DNA methyltransferase mechanism; DNA methyltransferase regulation; DNA methyltransferase structure; DNMT1; DNMT3A; DNMT3B; DNA Methylation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jeltsch, A.; Gowher, H. Editorial—Role of DNA Methyltransferases in the Epigenome. Genes 2019, 10, 574.

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