Next Article in Journal
Host-Associated Bacterial Succession during the Early Embryonic Stages and First Feeding in Farmed Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)
Next Article in Special Issue
Association of Vitamin D Pathway Genetic Variation and Thyroid Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Survey of the Bradysia odoriphaga Transcriptome Using PacBio Single-Molecule Long-Read Sequencing
Open AccessReview

Current Knowledge of Germline Genetic Risk Factors for the Development of Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer

1
Department Molecular Diagnostics, Holycross Centre, 25-734 Kielce, Poland
2
The Faculty of Health Sciences of the Jan Kochanowski University, 25-317 Kielce, Poland
3
Endocrinology Clinic of Holycross Cancer Centre, 25-734 Kielce, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(7), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10070482
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Cancer: Genetics and Targeted Therapies)
The thyroid is the most common site of endocrine cancer. One type of thyroid cancer, non-medullary thyroid cancer (NMTC), develops from follicular cells and represents approximately 90% of all thyroid cancers. Approximately 5%–15% of NMTC cases are thought to be of familial origin (FNMTC), which is defined as the occurrence of the disease in three or more first-degree relatives of the patient. It is often divided into two groups: Syndrome-associated and non-syndromic. The associated syndromes include Cowden syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Gardner syndrome, Carney complex and Werner syndrome. The hereditary factors contributing to the unfavorable course of FNMTC remain poorly understood; therefore, considerable effort is being expended to identify contributing loci. Research carried out to date identifies fourteen genes (DICER1, FOXE1, PTCSC2, MYH9, SRGAP1, HABP2, BRCA1, CHEK2, ATM, RASAL1, SRRM2, XRCC1, TITF-1/NKX2.1, PTCSC3) associated with vulnerability to FNMTC that are not related to hereditary syndromes. In this review, we summarize FNMTC studies to date, and provide information on genes involved in the development of non-syndromic familial non-medullary thyroid cancers, and the significance of mutations in these genes as risk factors. Moreover, we discuss whether the genetic polymorphism rs966423 in DIRC3 has any potential as a prognostic factor of papillary thyroid cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: thyroid cancer; genetic abnormalities; genetic markers; molecular testing; oncogenic mutations thyroid cancer; genetic abnormalities; genetic markers; molecular testing; oncogenic mutations
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hińcza, K.; Kowalik, A.; Kowalska, A. Current Knowledge of Germline Genetic Risk Factors for the Development of Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer. Genes 2019, 10, 482.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop