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Open AccessCommentary

Self-Organization of the Biological Evolution

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland
Genes 2019, 10(11), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10110854
Received: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
We report here experiments carried out with nonpathogenic Escherichia coli bacterial strains and their phages. This research yielded interesting insights into their activities, occasionally producing genetic variants of different types. In order to not interfere with the genetic stability of the parental strains involved, we found that the bacteria are genetically equipped to only rarely produce a genetic variant, which may occur by a number of different approaches. On the one hand, the genes of relevance for the production of specific genetic variants are relatively rarely expressed. On the other hand, other gene products act as moderators of the frequencies that produce genetic variants. We call the genes producing genetic variants and those moderating the frequencies of genetic variation “evolution genes”. Their products are generally not required for daily bacterial life. We can, therefore, conclude that the bacterial genome has a duality. Some of the bacterial enzymes involved in biological evolution have become useful tools (e.g., restriction endonucleases) for molecular genetic research involving the genetic set-up of any living organism. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic variants; natural selection; E. coli bacteria; restriction and modification; restriction endonucleases; in vivo and in vitro horizontal gene transfer; genetically modified organisms (GMOs); point mutants; mobile genetic elements; evolution genes; duality of the genome; permanent creation; tree of evolution genetic variants; natural selection; E. coli bacteria; restriction and modification; restriction endonucleases; in vivo and in vitro horizontal gene transfer; genetically modified organisms (GMOs); point mutants; mobile genetic elements; evolution genes; duality of the genome; permanent creation; tree of evolution
MDPI and ACS Style

Arber, W. Self-Organization of the Biological Evolution. Genes 2019, 10, 854.

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