Next Article in Journal
Cardiomyocyte-Specific Deletion of Orai1 Reveals Its Protective Role in Angiotensin-II-Induced Pathological Cardiac Remodeling
Previous Article in Journal
RNA Interference Screening Identifies Novel Roles for RhoBTB1 and RhoBTB3 in Membrane Trafficking Events in Mammalian Cells
Open AccessReview

Microbial Alterations and Risk Factors of Breast Cancer: Connections and Mechanistic Insights

Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051091
Received: 3 March 2020 / Revised: 21 April 2020 / Accepted: 23 April 2020 / Published: 28 April 2020
Breast cancer-related mortality remains high worldwide, despite tremendous advances in diagnostics and therapeutics; hence, the quest for better strategies for disease management, as well as the identification of modifiable risk factors, continues. With recent leaps in genomic technologies, microbiota have emerged as major players in most cancers, including breast cancer. Interestingly, microbial alterations have been observed with some of the established risk factors of breast cancer, such as obesity, aging and periodontal disease. Higher levels of estrogen, a risk factor for breast cancer that cross-talks with other risk factors such as alcohol intake, obesity, parity, breastfeeding, early menarche and late menopause, are also modulated by microbial dysbiosis. In this review, we discuss the association between known breast cancer risk factors and altered microbiota. An important question related to microbial dysbiosis and cancer is the underlying mechanisms by which alterations in microbiota can support cancer progression. To this end, we review the involvement of microbial metabolites as effector molecules, the modulation of the metabolism of xenobiotics, the induction of systemic immune modulation, and altered responses to therapy owing to microbial dysbiosis. Given the association of breast cancer risk factors with microbial dysbiosis and the multitude of mechanisms altered by dysbiotic microbiota, an impaired microbiome is, in itself, an important risk factor. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; microbiome; breast cancer; obesity; aging; estrogen; periodontal disease; xenobiotics; microbial metabolites microbiota; microbiome; breast cancer; obesity; aging; estrogen; periodontal disease; xenobiotics; microbial metabolites
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Parida, S.; Sharma, D. Microbial Alterations and Risk Factors of Breast Cancer: Connections and Mechanistic Insights. Cells 2020, 9, 1091.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop