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Review

Signaling of Macrophages that Contours the Tumor Microenvironment for Promoting Cancer Development

1
Center for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Development, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314, USA
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(4), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040919
Received: 12 March 2020 / Revised: 5 April 2020 / Accepted: 6 April 2020 / Published: 9 April 2020
The immune response is critical in the maintenance of an organism’s health. The immune response can be broken down into two groups. The innate response, which is fast-acting and rids the body of most foreign material before infection occurs, and the adaptive response, a more specific defense against pathogen composed mostly of antibody production and killer cells. Linking the two responses via cytokine and chemokine secretion are macrophages, motile phagocytic cells that ingest and present foreign material playing a role in the innate and adaptive immune response. Although macrophages are necessary for the survival of an organism, studies have also shown macrophages play a more sinister role in the initiation, progression, and metastasis in tumorous cells. In this comprehensive review, we show how macrophages induce such a response through abnormal cellular signaling and creating a cellular microenvironment conducive for tumor growth and metastasis, as well as the future outlook of this field. View Full-Text
Keywords: macrophages; polarization; cell signaling; transcription factors; cytokines; cancer initiation; tumor development; metastasis; tumor environment macrophages; polarization; cell signaling; transcription factors; cytokines; cancer initiation; tumor development; metastasis; tumor environment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Messex, J.K.; Byrd, C.J.; Liou, G.-Y. Signaling of Macrophages that Contours the Tumor Microenvironment for Promoting Cancer Development. Cells 2020, 9, 919. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040919

AMA Style

Messex JK, Byrd CJ, Liou G-Y. Signaling of Macrophages that Contours the Tumor Microenvironment for Promoting Cancer Development. Cells. 2020; 9(4):919. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040919

Chicago/Turabian Style

Messex, Justin K., Crystal J. Byrd, and Geou-Yarh Liou. 2020. "Signaling of Macrophages that Contours the Tumor Microenvironment for Promoting Cancer Development" Cells 9, no. 4: 919. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040919

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