Recent observations related to the structure of the cytoskeleton in neurons and novel cytoskeletal abnormalities involved in the pathophysiology of some neurological diseases are changing our view on the function of the cytoskeletal proteins in the nervous system. These efforts allow a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying neurological diseases and allow us to see beyond our current knowledge for the development of new treatments. The neuronal cytoskeleton can be described as an organelle formed by the three-dimensional lattice of the three main families of filaments: actin filaments, microtubules, and neurofilaments. This organelle organizes well-defined structures within neurons (cell bodies and axons), which allow their proper development and function through life. Here, we will provide an overview of both the basic and novel concepts related to those cytoskeletal proteins, which are emerging as potential targets in the study of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying neurological disorders.
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