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Review

From Genetic Alterations to Tumor Microenvironment: The Ariadne’s String in Pancreatic Cancer

1
Medical Oncology 1, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Section of Pathology, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy
3
Division of Oncology, University of Verona, 37126 Verona, Italy
4
Medicine-Digestive Molecular Clinical Oncology Research Unit, University of Verona, 37126 Verona, Italy
5
ARC-Net Research Centre, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, 37126 Verona, Italy
6
SAFU, Department of Research, Advanced Diagnostics, and Technological Innovation, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2020, 9(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020309
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2020 / Accepted: 23 January 2020 / Published: 28 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Pancreatic Cancer)
The threatening notoriety of pancreatic cancer mainly arises from its negligible early diagnosis, highly aggressive progression, failure of conventional therapeutic options and consequent very poor prognosis. The most important driver genes of pancreatic cancer are the oncogene KRAS and the tumor suppressors TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4. Although the presence of few drivers, several signaling pathways are involved in the oncogenesis of this cancer type, some of them with promising targets for precision oncology. Pancreatic cancer is recognized as one of immunosuppressive phenotype cancer: it is characterized by a fibrotic-desmoplastic stroma, in which there is an intensive cross-talk between several cellular (e.g., fibroblasts, myeloid cells, lymphocytes, endothelial, and myeloid cells) and acellular (collagen, fibronectin, and soluble factors) components. In this review; we aim to describe the current knowledge of the genetic/biological landscape of pancreatic cancer and the composition of its tumor microenvironment; in order to better direct in the intrinsic labyrinth of this complex tumor type. Indeed; disentangling the genetic and molecular characteristics of cancer cells and the environment in which they evolve may represent the crucial step towards more effective therapeutic strategies View Full-Text
Keywords: pancreatic cancer; oncogene; tumor suppressor; signaling pathway; tumor microenvironment; targeted therapy pancreatic cancer; oncogene; tumor suppressor; signaling pathway; tumor microenvironment; targeted therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bazzichetto, C.; Conciatori, F.; Luchini, C.; Simionato, F.; Santoro, R.; Vaccaro, V.; Corbo, V.; Falcone, I.; Ferretti, G.; Cognetti, F.; Melisi, D.; Scarpa, A.; Ciuffreda, L.; Milella, M. From Genetic Alterations to Tumor Microenvironment: The Ariadne’s String in Pancreatic Cancer. Cells 2020, 9, 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020309

AMA Style

Bazzichetto C, Conciatori F, Luchini C, Simionato F, Santoro R, Vaccaro V, Corbo V, Falcone I, Ferretti G, Cognetti F, Melisi D, Scarpa A, Ciuffreda L, Milella M. From Genetic Alterations to Tumor Microenvironment: The Ariadne’s String in Pancreatic Cancer. Cells. 2020; 9(2):309. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bazzichetto, Chiara; Conciatori, Fabiana; Luchini, Claudio; Simionato, Francesca; Santoro, Raffaela; Vaccaro, Vanja; Corbo, Vincenzo; Falcone, Italia; Ferretti, Gianluigi; Cognetti, Francesco; Melisi, Davide; Scarpa, Aldo; Ciuffreda, Ludovica; Milella, Michele. 2020. "From Genetic Alterations to Tumor Microenvironment: The Ariadne’s String in Pancreatic Cancer" Cells 9, no. 2: 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020309

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