Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) channels are homologues of Drosophila TRP channel first cloned in mammalian cells. TRPC family consists of seven members which are nonselective cation channels with a high Ca2+
permeability and are activated by a wide spectrum of stimuli. These channels are ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and organs in mammals and exert a variety of physiological functions. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) including phosphorylation, N-glycosylation, disulfide bond formation, ubiquitination, S-nitrosylation, S-glutathionylation, and acetylation play important roles in the modulation of channel gating, subcellular trafficking, protein-protein interaction, recycling, and protein architecture. PTMs also contribute to the polymodal activation of TRPCs and their subtle regulation in diverse physiological contexts and in pathological situations. Owing to their roles in the motor coordination and regulation of kidney podocyte structure, mutations of TRPCs have been implicated in diseases like cerebellar ataxia (moonwalker mice) and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The aim of this review is to comprehensively integrate all reported PTMs of TRPCs, to discuss their physiological/pathophysiological roles if available, and to summarize diseases linked to the natural mutations of TRPCs.
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