RhoA is a ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic protein that belongs to the family of small GTPases. RhoA acts as a molecular switch that is activated in response to binding of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors, and via mDia and the ROCK signaling cascade regulates the activation of cytoskeletal proteins, and other factors. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge on the role of RhoA as a general key regulator of immune cell differentiation and function. The contribution of RhoA for the primary functions of innate immune cell types, namely neutrophils, macrophages, and conventional dendritic cells (DC) to (i) get activated by pathogen-derived and endogenous danger signals, (ii) migrate to sites of infection and inflammation, and (iii) internalize pathogens has been fairly established. In activated DC, which constitute the most potent antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, RhoA is also important for the presentation of pathogen-derived antigen and the formation of an immunological synapse between DC and antigen-specific T cells as a prerequisite to induce adaptive T cell responses. In T cells and B cells as the effector cells of the adaptive immune system Rho signaling is pivotal for activation and migration. More recently, mutations of Rho and Rho-modulating factors have been identified to predispose for autoimmune diseases and as causative for hematopoietic malignancies.
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