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The Use of Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Organoids to Study Extracellular Matrix Development during Neural Degeneration

by Yuanwei Yan †,‡, Julie Bejoy, Mark Marzano and Yan Li *
Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
These two authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2019, 8(3), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8030242
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell-based Therapy and Disease Modeling)
The mechanism that causes the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathologies, including amyloid plaque, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuron death, is not well understood due to the lack of robust study models for human brain. Three-dimensional organoid systems based on human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have shown a promising potential to model neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. These systems, in combination with engineering tools, allow in vitro generation of brain-like tissues that recapitulate complex cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Brain ECMs play important roles in neural differentiation, proliferation, neuronal network, and AD progression. In this contribution related to brain ECMs, recent advances in modeling AD pathology and progression based on hPSC-derived neural cells, tissues, and brain organoids were reviewed and summarized. In addition, the roles of ECMs in neural differentiation of hPSCs and the influences of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronic acid on the progression of neurodegeneration were discussed. The advantages that use stem cell-based organoids to study neural degeneration and to investigate the effects of ECM development on the disease progression were highlighted. The contents of this article are significant for understanding cell-matrix interactions in stem cell microenvironment for treating neural degeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular matrix; pluripotent stem cells; organoids; neural degeneration; three-dimensional extracellular matrix; pluripotent stem cells; organoids; neural degeneration; three-dimensional
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, Y.; Bejoy, J.; Marzano, M.; Li, Y. The Use of Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Organoids to Study Extracellular Matrix Development during Neural Degeneration. Cells 2019, 8, 242.

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