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Open AccessArticle

The Major Histocompatibility Complex of Old World Camels—A Synopsis

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Dept. of Animal Genetics, Veterinary and Pharmaceutical University, Palackeho trida 1, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
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Ceitec VFU, RG Animal Immunogenomics, Palackeho trida 1, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
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Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, Vetmeduni Vienna, Savoyenstraße 1, 1160 Wien, Austria
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Ceitec MU, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Faculty of Science, National Centre for Biomolecular Research, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(10), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101200
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 2 October 2019 / Accepted: 3 October 2019 / Published: 5 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in Health and Disease)
This study brings new information on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III sub-region genes in Old World camels and integrates current knowledge of the MHC region into a comprehensive overview for Old World camels. Out of the MHC class III genes characterized, TNFA and the LY6 gene family showed high levels of conservation, characteristic for MHC class III loci in general. For comparison, an MHC class II gene TAP1, not coding for antigen presenting molecules but functionally related to MHC antigen presenting functions was studied. TAP1 had many SNPs, even higher than the MHC class I and II genes encoding antigen presenting molecules. Based on this knowledge and using new camel genomic resources, we constructed an improved genomic map of the entire MHC region of Old World camels. The MHC class III sub-region shows a standard organization similar to that of pig or cattle. The overall genomic structure of the camel MHC is more similar to pig MHC than to cattle MHC. This conclusion is supported by differences in the organization of the MHC class II sub-region, absence of functional DY genes, different organization of MIC genes in the MHC class I sub-region, and generally closer evolutionary relationships of camel and porcine MHC gene sequences analyzed so far.
Keywords: MHC; major histocompatibility complex; Old World camels; camels; dromedary; Bactrian camel; SNP MHC; major histocompatibility complex; Old World camels; camels; dromedary; Bactrian camel; SNP
MDPI and ACS Style

Plasil, M.; Wijkmark, S.; Elbers, J.P.; Oppelt, J.; Burger, P.A.; Horin, P. The Major Histocompatibility Complex of Old World Camels—A Synopsis. Cells 2019, 8, 1200.

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