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Agronomy 2018, 8(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8040045

Metabolic Profiling of Phloem Exudates as a Tool to Improve Bread-Wheat Cultivars

1
Laboratorio de Biología Funcional y Biotecnología (CICPBA-BIOLAB AZUL) CIISAS, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA), CONICET-INBIOTEC, Av. Rep. Italia 780, CC 47, 7300 Azul, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina
2
Biomics Facility, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Alfred Denny Building, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
3
Laboratorio de Fisiología Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Ruta 226 Km 73,5, Balcarce, Provincia de Buenos Aires, y Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, 7620 Balcarce, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract

In a proof of concept study aimed at showing that metabolites in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum), phloem exudates have potential as biochemical markers for cultivar discrimination, Argentinean cultivars from three quality groups (groups 1, 2, and 3 of high, intermediate, and low quality, respectively) were grown under two nitrogen (N) availabilities and analysed for metabolic profile by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Data as signal strengths of mass/charge (m/z) values binned to a resolution of 0.2 Daltons were subjected to principal component analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis. Certain bins were influential in discriminating groups taken in pairs and some were involved in separating all three groups. In high N availability, group 3 cultivars clustered away from the other cultivars, while group 1 cultivars clustered tightly together; group 2 cultivars were more scattered between group 1 and group 3 cultivars. In low N availability, the cultivars were not clustered as tightly; nonetheless, group 1 cultivars tended to cluster together and mainly separated from those of group 2. m/z values also showed potential for discrimination between N availability. In conclusion, phloem exudate metabolic profiles could provide biochemical markers for selection during breeding and for discerning the effects of N fertiliser application. View Full-Text
Keywords: phloem metabolites; electrospray ionisation; mass spectrometry; cultivar; quality groups; nitrogen phloem metabolites; electrospray ionisation; mass spectrometry; cultivar; quality groups; nitrogen
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Basile, S.M.L.; Burrell, M.M.; Walker, H.J.; Cardozo, J.A.; Steels, C.; Kallenberg, F.; Tognetti, J.A.; DallaValle, H.R.; Rogers, W.J. Metabolic Profiling of Phloem Exudates as a Tool to Improve Bread-Wheat Cultivars. Agronomy 2018, 8, 45.

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