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Article

Nitrogen Intake and Its Partition on Urine, Dung and Products of Dairy and Beef Cattle in Chile

1
Agricultural Research Institute, INIA Remehue, Casilla 24-O, Osorno 5290000, Chile
2
Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Institute of Animal Production, Austral University of Chile, Independencia 641, Valdivia 5110566, Chile
3
Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Institute of Animal Science, Austral University of Chile, Independencia 641, Valdivia 5110566, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martin Gierus
Agronomy 2022, 12(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010015
Received: 27 October 2021 / Revised: 8 December 2021 / Accepted: 17 December 2021 / Published: 23 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessing Sustainability of Ruminant Livestock Forage-Based Systems)
Nitrogen that is excreted through the urine and dung of cattle is an important source of nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions. In Chile, several studies have evaluated nitrogen (N) intake and its partitioning into urine and dung from beef and dairy cattle, however, there are no studies collating all data into one central database, which would allow an estimation of N excretion and its key variables to be developed. The aim of this study was to determine the N partition (milk or meat, urine and dung) and variables influencing the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and urinary N excretion of cattle based on a database generated from Chilean studies. The search of studies was carried out using a keyword list in different web-based platforms. Nitrogen excretion into urine and dung was calculated using equations reported in the literature for beef and dairy cattle. Mixed models were used to identify variables influencing the N partitioning. Nitrogen intake and its partitioning into the animal product, urine and dung were higher for dairy compared to beef cattle. For dairy cattle, NUE was influenced by milk yield, the non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC)/crude protein ratio, acid detergent fiber intake and milk urea N (MUN), while urinary N excretion was influenced by milk yield, MUN and NFC intake. For beef cattle, N intake and its excretion were greater for grazing compared to the confined system, while NUE was greater for confined animals. This database supplies new information on N intake and its partitioning (milk, meat, urine and dung) for dairy and beef cattle, which can be used for the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from pasture-based livestock in Chile. Additionally, our study supplies new information on nutritional variables determining NUE and urinary N excretion for dairy cattle, which can be used by farmers to reduce N excretion into the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: cattle; greenhouse gas emissions; nitrogen excretion; pasture; pollution cattle; greenhouse gas emissions; nitrogen excretion; pasture; pollution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beltran, I.E.; Calvache, I.; Cofre, R.; Salazar, F.; Keim, J.P.; Morales, A.; Pulido, R.G.; Alfaro, M. Nitrogen Intake and Its Partition on Urine, Dung and Products of Dairy and Beef Cattle in Chile. Agronomy 2022, 12, 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010015

AMA Style

Beltran IE, Calvache I, Cofre R, Salazar F, Keim JP, Morales A, Pulido RG, Alfaro M. Nitrogen Intake and Its Partition on Urine, Dung and Products of Dairy and Beef Cattle in Chile. Agronomy. 2022; 12(1):15. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010015

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beltran, Ignacio E., Ivan Calvache, Rocio Cofre, Francisco Salazar, Juan P. Keim, Alvaro Morales, Ruben G. Pulido, and Marta Alfaro. 2022. "Nitrogen Intake and Its Partition on Urine, Dung and Products of Dairy and Beef Cattle in Chile" Agronomy 12, no. 1: 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010015

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