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Article

Effect of Plant Spacings on Growth, Physiology, Yield and Fiber Quality Attributes of Cotton Genotypes under Nitrogen Fertilization

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Department of Agronomy, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Agriculture, Multan 60000, Pakistan
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Department of Soil Science, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal 89250, Pakistan
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Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
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Department of Soil Science, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Agriculture, Multan 60000, Pakistan
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Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Oilseeds Research Institute, Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad 38850, Pakistan
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Plant Nutrition Section, Mango Research Institute, Multan 60000, Pakistan
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College of Agriculture, Bahadur Sub-Campus Layyah, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Layyah 31200, Pakistan
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Soil & Water Testing Laboratory, Muzaffargarh 34200, Pakistan
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Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
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Department of Agronomy, The University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 22620, Pakistan
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Department of Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska1, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal in contribution of correspondence.
Academic Editor: Jane K. Dever
Agronomy 2021, 11(12), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11122589
Received: 16 October 2021 / Revised: 14 December 2021 / Accepted: 15 December 2021 / Published: 19 December 2021
Cotton is a major cash crop of Pakistan that provides high foreign exchange and plays an important role in agriculture, industry, and economic development. The plant population is important in achieving high cotton yield and fiber quality attributes in irrigated conditions. Most farmers maintain plant spacing according to their local tradition, and often ignore the varietal characteristics in Pakistan that cause low yield and poor quality of products. Therefore, standardization of plant spacings according to varietal characteristics is important to achieve higher yield and fiber quality. A field experiment was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan in 2017, in order to evaluate the performance of four cotton cultivars (MNH-1016, FH-Lalazar, NIAB-878, and Cyto-124) under five plant spacings (15.0, 22.5, 30.0, 37.5, and 45.0 cm), comparing them with and without nitrogen application. Nitrogen fertilization was applied at the rate of 197 kg ha−1. The experiment was replicated thrice, as per Randomized Complete Block Design with factorial arrangements. The results showed that nitrogen application of 197 kg ha−1 showed a positive impact on all crop parameters compared to plots where no nitrogen fertilizer was applied. The wider plant spacing (45 cm) increased the values of many cotton parameters compared with other plant spacings (22.5, 30.0, 37.5 and 45.0 cm), but the seed cotton yield was found to be higher in the narrow plant spacing (15 cm). However, fiber quality parameters such as GOT, staple strength, and micronaire showed higher values under wider plant spacing (45.0 cm). The varieties showed a mixed effect on cotton productivity and fiber quality. The MNH-1016 significantly impacted yield-contributing parameters such as bolls plant−1, boll weight and seed cotton yield. The NIAB-878 showed a higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance compared to other varieties. Therefore, the wider plant spacing with nitrogen application could be a better strategy to increase cotton growth, yield, physiology, and fiber quality. However, long-term studies under different climatic conditions are suggested for wider plant spacing with nitrogen fertilizers. View Full-Text
Keywords: agronomic practice; cotton; macronutrient; quality attributes; yield agronomic practice; cotton; macronutrient; quality attributes; yield
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaman, I.; Ali, M.; Shahzad, K.; Tahir, M.S.; Matloob, A.; Ahmad, W.; Alamri, S.; Khurshid, M.R.; Qureshi, M.M.; Wasaya, A.; Baig, K.S.; Siddiqui, M.H.; Fahad, S.; Datta, R. Effect of Plant Spacings on Growth, Physiology, Yield and Fiber Quality Attributes of Cotton Genotypes under Nitrogen Fertilization. Agronomy 2021, 11, 2589. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11122589

AMA Style

Zaman I, Ali M, Shahzad K, Tahir MS, Matloob A, Ahmad W, Alamri S, Khurshid MR, Qureshi MM, Wasaya A, Baig KS, Siddiqui MH, Fahad S, Datta R. Effect of Plant Spacings on Growth, Physiology, Yield and Fiber Quality Attributes of Cotton Genotypes under Nitrogen Fertilization. Agronomy. 2021; 11(12):2589. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11122589

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zaman, Ishrat, Muqarrab Ali, Khurram Shahzad, Muhammad S. Tahir, Amar Matloob, Wazir Ahmad, Saud Alamri, Muhammad R. Khurshid, Muhammad M. Qureshi, Allah Wasaya, Khurram S. Baig, Manzer H. Siddiqui, Shah Fahad, and Rahul Datta. 2021. "Effect of Plant Spacings on Growth, Physiology, Yield and Fiber Quality Attributes of Cotton Genotypes under Nitrogen Fertilization" Agronomy 11, no. 12: 2589. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11122589

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