Three cultivars of Jerusalem artichoke Albik, Rubik and Gute Gelbe were grown under different nitrogen fertilization regimens: 0, 80 and 120 kg N·ha−1
. Phenolic compounds were extracted from tubers using 80% (v/v
) methanol. The total phenolics were determined with the Folin–Ciocâlteu reagent and antioxidant activity was assessed using the ABTS (2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the total phenolics content was observed for the Albik cultivar. In the Rubik variety the lowest content was recorded at fertilization zero, and in the Gute Gelbe variety at this fertilization level the content of phenols was the highest. At fertilization 120 kg N·ha−1
, the highest ABTS test results were noted for all cultivars. For the Albik variety no effect of fertilization on the FRAP test results was noted; for the Rubik variety at zero nitrogen fertilization, the value for FRAP was the lowest, and it was the highest Gute Gelbe. The results of the DPPH test in the Gute Gelbe variety did not depend on the fertilization used. In the other two varieties, the lowest DPPH results were obtained at zero nitrogen regimen. Three main phenolic compounds were determined using HPLC. One of them was chlorogenic acid and the other two were derivatives of caffeic acid. The content of chlorogenic acid in tubers of the Gute Gelbe variety depended on nitrogen fertilization; the highest content of this compound was found in the case of fertilization zero. Statistical analysis showed a correlation between the content of phenolic compounds in tubers and their antioxidant potential. The results of this study suggest great potential for using Jerusalem artichoke tubers as a rich source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity.
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