The high sensitivity of one of the most important crops in the world, such as vine (Vitis vinifera
L.), to particular changes caused by the phenomena associated with global warming, is encouraging the wine industry to place value on grape varieties that are autochthonous to each production area. These are generally conserved in germplasm banks and may pose a useful tool to counteract the effects of climate change. In order to determine the actual resource that such varieties constitute, this research has carried out a genetic identification, a morphological characterization, and an analysis of the grape musts obtained from four autochthonous varieties (Cañocazo, Castellano, Mantúo de Pilas, and Palomino Fino). This genetic analysis has allowed the identification of autochthonous varieties with different genotypes. However, all of them had similar phenotypic characteristics in terms of high hair density in adult leaves. With respect to the physicochemical composition of the musts, significant differences have been observed between the autochthonous varieties, with respect to the control variety of Palomino Fino. Nevertheless, all of them have exhibited an adequate physicochemical composition to produce quality white wines. For all of the above reasons, these local varieties should be considered suitable for cultivation in areas with warmer and drier climates, such as Andalusia (Spain).
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