Next Article in Journal
Effects of Different Grafting Density of Amino Silane Coupling Agents on Thermomechanical Properties of Cross-Linked Epoxy Resin
Previous Article in Journal
The Impact of Vitrimers on the Industry of the Future: Chemistry, Properties and Sustainable Forward-Looking Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Tuning Functional Behavior of Humic Acids through Interactions with Stöber Silica Nanoparticles
 
 
Article

Thermal and Fire Behavior of a Bio-Based Epoxy/Silica Hybrid Cured with Methyl Nadic Anhydride

1
Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering (DICMaPI), University of Naples Federico II, P. le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli, Italy
2
Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB)-CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (NA), Italy
3
Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Viale Teresa Michel 5, 15121 Alessandria, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally.
Polymers 2020, 12(8), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081661
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 26 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sol-Gel Chemistry in Polymers Research)
Thermosetting polymers have been widely used in many industrial applications as adhesives, coatings and laminated materials, among others. Recently, bisphenol A (BPA) has been banned as raw material for polymeric products, due to its harmful impact on human health. On the other hand, the use of aromatic amines as curing agents confers excellent thermal, mechanical and flame retardant properties to the final product, although they are toxic and subject to governmental restrictions. In this context, sugar-derived diepoxy monomers and anhydrides represent a sustainable greener alternative to BPA and aromatic amines. Herein, we report an “in-situ” sol–gel synthesis, using as precursors tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS) to obtain bio-based epoxy/silica composites; in a first step, the APTS was left to react with 2,5-bis[(oxyran-2-ylmethoxy)methyl]furan (BOMF) or diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)monomers, and silica particles were generated in the epoxy in a second step; both systems were cured with methyl nadic anhydride (MNA). Morphological investigation of the composites through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the hybrid strategy allows a very fine distribution of silica nanoparticles (at nanometric level) to be achieved within a hybrid network structure for both the diepoxy monomers. Concerning the fire behavior, as assessed in vertical flame spread tests, the use of anhydride curing agent prevented melt dripping phenomena and provided high char-forming character to the bio-based epoxy systems and their phenyl analog. In addition, forced combustion tests showed that the use of anhydride hardener instead of aliphatic polyamine results in a remarkable decrease of heat release rate. An overall decrease of the smoke parameters, which is highly desirable in a context of greater fire safety was observed in the case of BOMF/MNA system. The experimental results suggest that the effect of silica nanoparticles on fire behavior appears to be related to their dispersion degree. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-based epoxy resin; silica nanoparticles; in-situ; sol-gel; methyl nadic anhydride; flame retardance bio-based epoxy resin; silica nanoparticles; in-situ; sol-gel; methyl nadic anhydride; flame retardance
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Bifulco, A.; Marotta, A.; Passaro, J.; Costantini, A.; Cerruti, P.; Gentile, G.; Ambrogi, V.; Malucelli, G.; Branda, F. Thermal and Fire Behavior of a Bio-Based Epoxy/Silica Hybrid Cured with Methyl Nadic Anhydride. Polymers 2020, 12, 1661. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081661

AMA Style

Bifulco A, Marotta A, Passaro J, Costantini A, Cerruti P, Gentile G, Ambrogi V, Malucelli G, Branda F. Thermal and Fire Behavior of a Bio-Based Epoxy/Silica Hybrid Cured with Methyl Nadic Anhydride. Polymers. 2020; 12(8):1661. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081661

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bifulco, Aurelio, Angela Marotta, Jessica Passaro, Aniello Costantini, Pierfrancesco Cerruti, Gennaro Gentile, Veronica Ambrogi, Giulio Malucelli, and Francesco Branda. 2020. "Thermal and Fire Behavior of a Bio-Based Epoxy/Silica Hybrid Cured with Methyl Nadic Anhydride" Polymers 12, no. 8: 1661. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081661

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop