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Article

Chitosan-GPTMS-Silica Hybrid Mesoporous Aerogels for Bone Tissue Engineering

1
Department of Condensed Matter Physics 1, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Cádiz, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigación e Innovación Biomédica de Cádiz (INIBICA), 11009 Cádiz, Spain
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Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science University of Cadiz, 11510 Cádiz, Spain
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Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science University of Cadiz, 11510 Cádiz, Spain
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Instituto de Microscopía Electrónica y Materiales (IMEYMAT), University of Cadiz, 11510 Cádiz, Spain
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Department of Histology, SCIBM, Faculty of Medicine University of Cadiz, 11004 Cádiz, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(11), 2723; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112723
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 14 November 2020 / Published: 17 November 2020
This study introduces a new synthesis route for obtaining homogeneous chitosan (CS)-silica hybrid aerogels with CS contents up to 10 wt%, using 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as coupling agent, for tissue engineering applications. Aerogels were obtained using the sol-gel process followed by CO2 supercritical drying, resulting in samples with bulk densities ranging from 0.17 g/cm3 to 0.38 g/cm3. The textural analysis by N2-physisorption revealed an interconnected mesopore network with decreasing specific surface areas (1230–700 m2/g) and pore sizes (11.1–8.7 nm) by increasing GPTMS content (2–4 molar ratio GPTMS:CS monomer). In addition, samples exhibited extremely fast swelling by spontaneous capillary imbibition in PBS solution, presenting swelling capacities from 1.75 to 3.75. The formation of a covalent crosslinked hybrid structure was suggested by FTIR and confirmed by an increase of four hundred fold or more in the compressive strength up to 96 MPa. Instead, samples synthesized without GPTMS fractured at only 0.10–0.26 MPa, revealing a week structure consisted in interpenetrated polymer networks. The aerogels presented bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), as confirmed by the in vitro formation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer with crystal size of approximately 2 µm size in diameter. In vitro studies revealed also non cytotoxic effect on HOB® osteoblasts and also a mechanosensitive response. Additionally, control cells grown on glass developed scarce or no stress fibers, while cells grown on hybrid samples showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in well-developed stress fibers and mature focal adhesion complexes. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid silica aerogels; chitosan; GPTMS; textural properties; mechanical properties; swelling properties; bioactivity; bone tissue engineering; osteoblasts; focal adhesions hybrid silica aerogels; chitosan; GPTMS; textural properties; mechanical properties; swelling properties; bioactivity; bone tissue engineering; osteoblasts; focal adhesions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reyes-Peces, M.V.; Pérez-Moreno, A.; de-los-Santos, D.M.; Mesa-Díaz, M.d.M.; Pinaglia-Tobaruela, G.; Vilches-Pérez, J.I.; Fernández-Montesinos, R.; Salido, M.; de la Rosa-Fox, N.; Piñero, M. Chitosan-GPTMS-Silica Hybrid Mesoporous Aerogels for Bone Tissue Engineering. Polymers 2020, 12, 2723. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112723

AMA Style

Reyes-Peces MV, Pérez-Moreno A, de-los-Santos DM, Mesa-Díaz MdM, Pinaglia-Tobaruela G, Vilches-Pérez JI, Fernández-Montesinos R, Salido M, de la Rosa-Fox N, Piñero M. Chitosan-GPTMS-Silica Hybrid Mesoporous Aerogels for Bone Tissue Engineering. Polymers. 2020; 12(11):2723. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112723

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reyes-Peces, María V., A. Pérez-Moreno, Deseada M. de-los-Santos, María d.M. Mesa-Díaz, Gonzalo Pinaglia-Tobaruela, Jose I. Vilches-Pérez, Rafael Fernández-Montesinos, Mercedes Salido, Nicolás de la Rosa-Fox, and Manuel Piñero. 2020. "Chitosan-GPTMS-Silica Hybrid Mesoporous Aerogels for Bone Tissue Engineering" Polymers 12, no. 11: 2723. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112723

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