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Review

Bio-Based Alternatives to Phenol and Formaldehyde for the Production of Resins

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah, PO Box 26666, Sharjah, UAE
2
Khansaheb Industries, Airport Road, Rashidiya, PO Box 13, Dubai, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102237
Received: 3 September 2020 / Revised: 22 September 2020 / Accepted: 24 September 2020 / Published: 28 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Bio-Based Polymers: Towards a Circular Bioeconomy)
Phenol–formaldehyde (PF) resin continues to dominate the resin industry more than 100 years after its first synthesis. Its versatile properties such as thermal stability, chemical resistance, fire resistance, and dimensional stability make it a suitable material for a wide range of applications. PF resins have been used in the wood industry as adhesives, in paints and coatings, and in the aerospace, construction, and building industries as composites and foams. Currently, petroleum is the key source of raw materials used in manufacturing PF resin. However, increasing environmental pollution and fossil fuel depletion have driven industries to seek sustainable alternatives to petroleum based raw materials. Over the past decade, researchers have replaced phenol and formaldehyde with sustainable materials such as lignin, tannin, cardanol, hydroxymethylfurfural, and glyoxal to produce bio-based PF resin. Several synthesis modifications are currently under investigation towards improving the properties of bio-based phenolic resin. This review discusses recent developments in the synthesis of PF resins, particularly those created from sustainable raw material substitutes, and modifications applied to the synthetic route in order to improve the mechanical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenol-formaldehyde resin; resol resin; lignin; tannin; cardanol; hydroxymethylfurfural; furfural; glyoxal; sustainable resin phenol-formaldehyde resin; resol resin; lignin; tannin; cardanol; hydroxymethylfurfural; furfural; glyoxal; sustainable resin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarika, P.R.; Nancarrow, P.; Khansaheb, A.; Ibrahim, T. Bio-Based Alternatives to Phenol and Formaldehyde for the Production of Resins. Polymers 2020, 12, 2237. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102237

AMA Style

Sarika PR, Nancarrow P, Khansaheb A, Ibrahim T. Bio-Based Alternatives to Phenol and Formaldehyde for the Production of Resins. Polymers. 2020; 12(10):2237. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102237

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sarika, P. R., Paul Nancarrow, Abdulrahman Khansaheb, and Taleb Ibrahim. 2020. "Bio-Based Alternatives to Phenol and Formaldehyde for the Production of Resins" Polymers 12, no. 10: 2237. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102237

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