Next Article in Journal
Narrowband Spontaneous Emission Amplification from a Conjugated Oligomer Thin Film
Previous Article in Journal
Nanolayers of Poly(N,N′-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate) with a Star Topology and Their Antibacterial Activity
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Influence of Compatibility on the Structure and Properties of PLA/Lignin Biocomposites by Chemical Modification
Open AccessArticle

Poly(d,l-Lactic acid) Composite Foams Containing Phosphate Glass Particles Produced via Solid-State Foaming Using CO2 for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

1
Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0C5, Canada
2
National Research Council Canada, Boucherville, QC J4B 6Y4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, USUHS, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.
Current address: Air Canada, Montreal, QC H4S 1Y9, Canada.
§
Current address: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Current address: Sanexen Environmental Service Inc., Brossard, QC J4Z 3V4, Canada.
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010231
Received: 10 December 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 17 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyester-Based Eco-Composites)
This study reports on the production and characterization of highly porous (up to 91%) composite foams for potential bone tissue engineering (BTE) applications. A calcium phosphate-based glass particulate (PGP) filler of the formulation 50P2O5-40CaO-10TiO2 mol.%, was incorporated into biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA) at 5, 10, 20, and 30 vol.%. The composites were fabricated by melt compounding (extrusion) and compression molding, and converted into porous structures through solid-state foaming (SSF) using high-pressure gaseous carbon dioxide. The morphological and mechanical properties of neat PDLLA and composites in both nonporous and porous states were examined. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the PGPs were well dispersed throughout the matrices. The highly porous composite systems exhibited improved compressive strength and Young’s modulus (up to >2-fold) and well-interconnected macropores (up to ~78% open pores at 30 vol.% PGP) compared to those of the neat PDLLA foam. The pore size of the composite foams decreased with increasing PGPs content from an average of 920 µm for neat PDLLA foam to 190 µm for PDLLA-30PGP. Furthermore, the experimental data was in line with the Gibson and Ashby model, and effective microstructural changes were confirmed to occur upon 30 vol.% PGP incorporation. Interestingly, the SSF technique allowed for a high incorporation of bioactive particles (up to 30 vol.%—equivalent to ~46 wt.%) while maintaining the morphological and mechanical criteria required for BTE scaffolds. Based on the results, the SSF technique can offer more advantages and flexibility for designing composite foams with tunable characteristics compared to other methods used for the fabrication of BTE scaffolds. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphate-based glass particulates; poly(d,l-lactic) acid; biodegradable composites; solid-state foaming; carbon dioxide; tissue engineering phosphate-based glass particulates; poly(d,l-lactic) acid; biodegradable composites; solid-state foaming; carbon dioxide; tissue engineering
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Shah Mohammadi, M.; Rezabeigi, E.; Bertram, J.; Marelli, B.; Gendron, R.; Nazhat, S.N.; Bureau, M.N. Poly(d,l-Lactic acid) Composite Foams Containing Phosphate Glass Particles Produced via Solid-State Foaming Using CO2 for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications. Polymers 2020, 12, 231.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop