Next Article in Journal
Effect of Soybean Soluble Polysaccharide on the Formation of Glucono-δ-Lactone-Induced Soybean Protein Isolate Gel
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Single/Collective Use of Curing Agents on the Curing Behavior and Bond Strength of Soy Protein-Melamine-Urea-Formaldehyde (SMUF) Resin for Plywood Assembly
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Novel Eco-Friendly Wood Adhesive Composed by Sucrose and Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate
Open AccessArticle

Further Exploration of Sucrose–Citric Acid Adhesive: Investigation of Optimal Hot-Pressing Conditions for Plywood and Curing Behavior

1
College of Furnishings and Industrial Design, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
2
Laboratory of Sustainable Materials, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan
3
Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China
4
Jiangsu Center of Supervision & Testing on Green Degradable Material Quality, Nanjing 210019, China
5
College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
6
College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11121996
Received: 17 November 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 30 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Polymeric Adhesives)
In previous research, sucrose and citric acid were used to synthesize an eco-friendly plywood adhesive. Herein, further research was performed to determine the optimal hot-pressing conditions and curing behavior of a sucrose-citric acid (SC) adhesive. The results of dry and wet shear strength measurements showed that the optimal hot-pressing temperature, hot-pressing time, and spread rate of plywood samples bonded by the SC adhesive were 190 °C, 7 min, and 140 g/m2, respectively. When plywood was bonded at the optimal hot-pressing conditions, the wet shear strength met the requirements of the China National Standard GB/T 9846-2015. Thermal analysis showed that the thermal degradation and endothermic reaction temperatures of the SC 25/75 adhesive were lower than either sucrose or citric acid individually. In addition, the insoluble mass proportion increased with the heating temperature and time. The Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometr (Py-GC/MS) analysis confirmed that the SC adhesive was cured by the reaction between furan compounds, saccharide, and citric acid, and the resulting polymer appeared to be joined by ether linkages. View Full-Text
Keywords: eco-friendly adhesive; sucrose; citric acid; plywood eco-friendly adhesive; sucrose; citric acid; plywood
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Z.; Sakai, S.; Wu, D.; Chen, Z.; Zhu, N.; Huang, C.; Sun, S.; Zhang, M.; Umemura, K.; Yong, Q. Further Exploration of Sucrose–Citric Acid Adhesive: Investigation of Optimal Hot-Pressing Conditions for Plywood and Curing Behavior. Polymers 2019, 11, 1996.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop