Light propagation in one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (PCs) enclosed in a rectangular waveguide is investigated in order to achieve a complete photonic band gap (PBG) while avoiding the difficulty in fabricating 3D PCs. This work complements our two previous articles (Phys. Rev. E) that quantitatively analyzed omnidirectional light propagation in 1D and 2D PCs, respectively, both showing that a complete PBG cannot exist if an evanescent wave propagation is involved. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the transmission functions, the band structures, and the photon density of states (PDOS) for both the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarization modes of the periodic multilayer heterostructure confined in a rectangular waveguide. The PDOS of the quasi-1D photonic crystal for both the TE and TM modes are obtained, respectively. It is demonstrated that a “complete PBG” can be obtained for some frequency ranges and categorized into three types: (1) below the cutoff frequency of the fundamental TE mode, (2) within the PBG of the fundamental TE mode but below the cutoff frequency of the next higher order mode, and (3) within an overlap of the PBGs of either TE modes, TM modes, or both. These results are of general importance and relevance to the dipole radiation or spontaneous emission by an atom in quasi-1D periodic structures and may have applications in future photonic quantum technologies.
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