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Crystals 2015, 5(1), 61-73;

Band Structure of Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization

ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101, Russia
Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021, Russia
Nonlinear Physics Center, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., D-30419 Hannover, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eli Yablonovitch
Received: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 13 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
Full-Text   |   PDF [6244 KB, uploaded 13 January 2015]


We study theoretically the band-gap structures of several types of three-dimensional photonic crystals with the fcc lattice symmetry: synthetic opals, inverted yablonovite and woodpile. The samples of inverted yablonovite, inverted yablonovite with a glassy superstructure and woodpile are fabricated by two-photon polymerization through a direct laser writing technique, which allows the creation of complex three-dimensional photonic crystals with a resolution better than 100 nm. A material is polymerized along the trace of a moving laser focus, thus enabling the fabrication of any desirable three-dimensional structure by direct “recording” into the volume of a photosensitive material. The correspondence of the structures of the fabricated samples to the expected fcc lattices is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. We discuss theoretically how the complete photonic band-gap is modified by structural and dielectric parameters. We demonstrate that the photonic properties of opal and yablonovite are opposite: the complete photonic band gap appears in the inverted opal, and direct yablonovite is absent in direct opal and inverted yablonovite. View Full-Text
Keywords: direct laser writing; photonic crystals; opal; woodpile; yablonovite direct laser writing; photonic crystals; opal; woodpile; yablonovite
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rybin, M.V.; Shishkin, I.I.; Samusev, K.B.; Belov, P.A.; Kivshar, Y.S.; Kiyan, R.V.; Chichkov, B.N.; Limonov, M.F. Band Structure of Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization. Crystals 2015, 5, 61-73.

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