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Open AccessArticle

Band Structure of Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization

1
ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101, Russia
2
Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021, Russia
3
Nonlinear Physics Center, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
4
Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., D-30419 Hannover, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eli Yablonovitch
Crystals 2015, 5(1), 61-73; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst5010061
Received: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 13 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
We study theoretically the band-gap structures of several types of three-dimensional photonic crystals with the fcc lattice symmetry: synthetic opals, inverted yablonovite and woodpile. The samples of inverted yablonovite, inverted yablonovite with a glassy superstructure and woodpile are fabricated by two-photon polymerization through a direct laser writing technique, which allows the creation of complex three-dimensional photonic crystals with a resolution better than 100 nm. A material is polymerized along the trace of a moving laser focus, thus enabling the fabrication of any desirable three-dimensional structure by direct “recording” into the volume of a photosensitive material. The correspondence of the structures of the fabricated samples to the expected fcc lattices is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. We discuss theoretically how the complete photonic band-gap is modified by structural and dielectric parameters. We demonstrate that the photonic properties of opal and yablonovite are opposite: the complete photonic band gap appears in the inverted opal, and direct yablonovite is absent in direct opal and inverted yablonovite. View Full-Text
Keywords: direct laser writing; photonic crystals; opal; woodpile; yablonovite direct laser writing; photonic crystals; opal; woodpile; yablonovite
MDPI and ACS Style

Rybin, M.V.; Shishkin, I.I.; Samusev, K.B.; Belov, P.A.; Kivshar, Y.S.; Kiyan, R.V.; Chichkov, B.N.; Limonov, M.F. Band Structure of Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization. Crystals 2015, 5, 61-73.

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