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Open AccessArticle

Valorization of Olive By-Products as Substrates for the Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus Mushrooms with Enhanced Functional and Prebiotic Properties

1
Laboratory of General and Agricultural Microbiology, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, 17676 Athens, Greece
3
Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
4
Institute of Chemical Biology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 11634 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(6), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9060537
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Biocatalysis: From Remediation to Waste Valorization)
The successful management of olive by-products constitutes a major challenge due to their huge volume, high organic content, and toxicity. Olive-mill wastes (TPOMW) and olive pruning residues (OLPR) were evaluated as substrates for the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus. Chemical composition, glucans, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity were measured in mushrooms, and their prebiotic potential was assessed by examining their effect on the growth of four intestinal bacteria. Several substrates based on olive by-products had a positive impact on P. ostreatus mushroom production, whereas only one performed adequately for G. lucidum. Increased ratios of OLPR to wheat-straw resulted in an increase of crude protein content in P. ostreatus fruit-bodies by up to 42%, while G. lucidum mushrooms from OLPR-based substrates exhibited an up to three-fold increase in α-glucan, or a significant enhancement of β-glucan content, when compared to beech sawdust (control). The mushrooms’ FTIR spectra confirmed the qualitative/quantitative differentiation detected by standard assays. In regard to prebiotic properties, mushrooms powder supported or even enhanced growth of both Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. gasseri after 24/48 h of incubation. In contrast, a strain-specific pattern was observed in bifidobacteria; mushrooms hindered Bifidobacterium bifidum growth, whereas they supported a similar-to-glucose growth for B. longum. View Full-Text
Keywords: olive mill waste; lignocellulosic residues; Ganoderma lucidum; Pleurotus ostreatus; medicinal mushrooms; glucan; prebiotic; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium; waste valorization olive mill waste; lignocellulosic residues; Ganoderma lucidum; Pleurotus ostreatus; medicinal mushrooms; glucan; prebiotic; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium; waste valorization
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Koutrotsios, G.; Patsou, M.; Mitsou, E.K.; Bekiaris, G.; Kotsou, M.; Tarantilis, P.A.; Pletsa, V.; Kyriacou, A.; Zervakis, G.I. Valorization of Olive By-Products as Substrates for the Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus Mushrooms with Enhanced Functional and Prebiotic Properties. Catalysts 2019, 9, 537.

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