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Base Metal Catalysts for Deoxygenative Reduction of Amides to Amines

1
Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, 53 Kabanbay Batyr Avenue, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
2
The Environment and Resource Efficiency Cluster (EREC), Nazarbayev University, 53 Kabanbay Batyr Avenue, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(6), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9060490
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry and Catalysis)
The development of efficient methodologies for production of amines attracts significant attention from synthetic chemists, because amines serve as essential building blocks in the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals, natural products, and agrochemicals. In this regard, deoxygenative reduction of amides to amines by means of transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenation, hydrosilylation, and hydroboration reactions represents an attractive alternative to conventional wasteful techniques based on stoichiometric reductions of the corresponding amides and imines, and reductive amination of aldehydes with metal hydride reagents. The relatively low electrophilicity of the amide carbonyl group makes this transformation more challenging compared to reduction of other carbonyl compounds, and the majority of the reported catalytic systems employ precious metals such as platinum, rhodium, iridium, and ruthenium. Despite the application of more abundant and environmentally benign base metal (Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) complexes for deoxygenative reduction of amides have been developed to a lesser extent, such catalytic systems are of great importance. This review is focused on the current achievements in the base-metal-catalyzed deoxygenative hydrogenation, hydrosilylation, and hydroboration of amides to amines. Special attention is paid to the design of base metal catalysts and the mechanisms of such catalytic transformations. View Full-Text
Keywords: base metals; homogeneous catalysis; amides; reduction; hydrogenation; hydroboration; hydrosilylation; amines base metals; homogeneous catalysis; amides; reduction; hydrogenation; hydroboration; hydrosilylation; amines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khalimon, A.Y.; Gudun, K.A.; Hayrapetyan, D. Base Metal Catalysts for Deoxygenative Reduction of Amides to Amines. Catalysts 2019, 9, 490.

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