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Catalysts 2019, 9(4), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9040323

Characterization and Effect of Ag(0) vs. Ag(I) Species and Their Localized Plasmon Resonance on Photochemically Inactive TiO2

1
Program Studi Ilmu Lingkungan, Universitas Sriwijaya, Jalan Padang Selasa No. 524, Palembang 30121, Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia
2
Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e. V. (LIKAT), Albert-Einstein-Str. 29a, 18059 Rostock, Germany
3
Arbeitsbereich Medizinische Biologie und Elektronenmikroskopisches Zentrum (EMZ), Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Strempelstr. 14, 18057 Rostock, Germany
4
Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
5
Program Studi Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sriwijaya, Jalan Palembang-Inderalaya Km. 32, Inderalaya 30862, Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Nanocomposite Materials)
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Abstract

Commercial TiO2 (anatase) was successfully modified with Ag nanoparticles at different nominal loadings (1%–4%) using a liquid impregnation method. The prepared materials retained the anatase structure and contained a mixture of Ag0 and AgI species. Samples exhibited extended light absorption to the visible region. The effect of Ag loading on TiO2 is studied for the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CH4 in a gas–solid process under high-purity conditions. It is remarkable that the reference TiO2 used in this work is entirely inactive in this reaction, but it allows for studying the effect of Ag on the photocatalytic process in more detail. Only in the case of 2% Ag/TiO2 was the formation of CH4 from CO2 observed. Using different light sources, an influence of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of Ag is verified. A sample in which all Ag has been reduced to the metallic state was less active than the respective sample containing both Ag0 and Ag+, indicating that a mixed oxidation state is beneficial for photocatalytic performance. These results contribute to a better understanding of the effect of metal modification of TiO2 in photocatalytic CO2 reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: localized surface plasmon resonance; TiO2; silver; oxidation state; liquid impregnation localized surface plasmon resonance; TiO2; silver; oxidation state; liquid impregnation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Handoko, C.T.; Moustakas, N.G.; Peppel, T.; Springer, A.; Oropeza, F.E.; Huda, A.; Bustan, M.D.; Yudono, B.; Gulo, F.; Strunk, J. Characterization and Effect of Ag(0) vs. Ag(I) Species and Their Localized Plasmon Resonance on Photochemically Inactive TiO2. Catalysts 2019, 9, 323.

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