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Catalysts 2019, 9(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9020203

Aldol Condensation of Furfural with Acetone Over Mg/Al Mixed Oxides. Influence of Water and Synthesis Method

Departamento de Química Orgánica, Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Química Fina y Nanoquímica IUIQFN, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, E-14071 Córdoba, Spain
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Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract

Aldol condensation of furfural and acetone (an important initial step to obtain diesel from biomass) was studied over MgAl mixed oxides. The influence of the utilization of microwaves and/or a surfactant (Pluronic 123) during the synthesis as well as the use of water (either pre-hydrating the solids before catalytic studies or in water/toluene mixtures as the reaction medium) is discussed. The combined use of Pluronic 123 and microwaves led to solids with bigger pore sizes, exhibiting lower basicity and higher acidity than the conventional synthetic method, thus resulting in an increase in the yield of the desired product of condensation, comprising two molecules of furfural and one of acetone (F2Ac). As for the influence of water, re-hydration of the mixed oxides was detrimental to activity, probably as a result of the partial blocking (solvation) of active sites. On the contrary, the increase in water percentage in the reaction medium resulted in higher conversions, though selectivity to F2Ac decreased. The weakening of the C=O bond of furfural in the presence of water as well as the higher solubility of the first condensation product (FAc) in toluene, as compared to water, could account for that. A 44.5% yield of F2Ac (66% conversion) after 16 h was obtained with the most active solid, which maintained the activity for three consecutive reactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: aldol condensation; biomass valorization; Mg/Al mixed oxides; surfactant; microwaves; influence of water aldol condensation; biomass valorization; Mg/Al mixed oxides; surfactant; microwaves; influence of water
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Parejas, A.; Cosano, D.; Hidalgo-Carrillo, J.; Ruiz, J.R.; Marinas, A.; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, C.; Urbano, F.J. Aldol Condensation of Furfural with Acetone Over Mg/Al Mixed Oxides. Influence of Water and Synthesis Method. Catalysts 2019, 9, 203.

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