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Article

Turbidity Changes during Carbamazepine Oxidation by Photo-Fenton

1
Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa, Spain
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskişehir, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enric Brillas
Catalysts 2021, 11(8), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11080894
Received: 25 June 2021 / Revised: 20 July 2021 / Accepted: 21 July 2021 / Published: 24 July 2021
The objective of this study is to evaluate the turbidity generated during the Fenton photo-reaction applied to the oxidation of waters containing carbamazepine as a function of factors such as pH, H2O2 concentration and catalyst dosage. The results let establish the degradation pathways and the main decomposition byproducts. It is found that the pH affects the turbidity of the water. Working between pH = 2.0 and 2.5, the turbidity is under 1 NTU due to the fact that iron, added as a catalyst, is in the form of a ferrous ion. Operating at pH values above 3.0, the iron species in their oxidized state (mainly ferric hydroxide in suspension) would cause turbidity. The contribution of these ferric species is a function of the concentration of iron added to the process, verifying that the turbidity increases linearly according to a ratio of 0.616 NTU L/mg Fe. Performing with oxidant concentrations at (H2O2) = 2.0 mM, the turbidity undergoes a strong increase until reaching values around 98 NTU in the steady state. High turbidity levels can be originated by the formation of coordination complexes, consisting of the union of three molecules containing substituted carboxylic groups (BaQD), which act as ligands towards an iron atom with Fe3+ oxidation state. View Full-Text
Keywords: BaQD; carbamazepine; ferric coordination complex; photo-Fenton; turbidity BaQD; carbamazepine; ferric coordination complex; photo-Fenton; turbidity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Villota, N.; Ferreiro, C.; Qulatein, H.A.; Lomas, J.M.; Lombraña, J.I. Turbidity Changes during Carbamazepine Oxidation by Photo-Fenton. Catalysts 2021, 11, 894. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11080894

AMA Style

Villota N, Ferreiro C, Qulatein HA, Lomas JM, Lombraña JI. Turbidity Changes during Carbamazepine Oxidation by Photo-Fenton. Catalysts. 2021; 11(8):894. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11080894

Chicago/Turabian Style

Villota, Natalia, Cristian Ferreiro, Hussein A. Qulatein, Jose M. Lomas, and Jose I. Lombraña 2021. "Turbidity Changes during Carbamazepine Oxidation by Photo-Fenton" Catalysts 11, no. 8: 894. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11080894

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