Combination of Anti-Angiogenics and Checkpoint Inhibitors for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Is the Whole Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts?
Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 1374, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
Department of Medical Oncology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospitals, London SE1 9RT, UK
Sarah Cannon Research Institute, London W1G 6AD, UK
Centre for Personalised Nanomedicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ke Chen
Received: 23 December 2021
Revised: 21 January 2022
Accepted: 23 January 2022
Published: 27 January 2022
Checkpoint inhibitors and anti-angiogenic therapies are treatments that slow the progression of renal cell carcinoma, the most common type of kidney cancer. Checkpoint inhibitors and anti-angiogenic therapies work in different ways. Checkpoint inhibitors help to prevent tumors from hiding from the body’s immune system, while anti-angiogenic therapies slow the development of blood vessels that tumours need to help them to grow. Studies have shown that treatment with combination checkpoint inhibitor plus anti-angiogenic therapy can achieve better outcomes for patients with renal cell carcinoma than treatment with anti-angiogenic therapy alone. In this review, we consider how combination checkpoint inhibitor plus anti-angiogenic therapy works, and we review the current literature to identify evidence to inform clinicians as to the most effective way to use these different types of drugs, either one after the other, or together, for maximum patient benefit.