Pancreatic Cancer and Microenvironments: Implications of Anesthesia
Department of Anesthesiology, Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
Department of Anesthesiology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Center for Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hideaki Ijichi
Received: 27 April 2022
Revised: 25 May 2022
Accepted: 25 May 2022
Published: 28 May 2022
Pancreatic cancer is a lethal malignant neoplasm with less than 10% 5-year relative survival after the initial diagnosis. Several factors may be related to the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer, including the rapid tumor progression, increased metastatic propensity, insignificant symptoms, shortage of early diagnostic biomarkers, and its tendency toward resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Pancreatic neoplastic cells interact intimately with a complicated microenvironment that can foster drug resistance, metastasis, or relapse in pancreatic cancer. In addition, evidence shows that perioperative factors, including surgical manipulation, anesthetics, or analgesics, might alter the tumor microenvironment and cancer progression. This review outlines the up-to-date knowledge of anesthesia implications in the pancreatic microenvironment and provides future anesthetic strategies for improving pancreatic cancer survival.