Next Article in Journal
Polyphyllin VI Induces Caspase-1-Mediated Pyroptosis via the Induction of ROS/NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD Signal Axis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Current Status and Future Perspectives of Immunotherapy for Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Upregulation of ZIP14 and Altered Zinc Homeostasis in Muscles in Pancreatic Cancer Cachexia
Open AccessReview

Systemic Actions of Breast Cancer Facilitate Functional Limitations

1
Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
3
VA Roudebush Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010194
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Cachexia)
Breast cancer is a disease of a specific organ, but its effects are felt throughout the body. The systemic effects of breast cancer can lead to functional limitations in patients who suffer from muscle weakness, fatigue, pain, fibromyalgia, or many other dysfunctions, which hasten cancer-associated death. Mechanistic studies have identified quite a few molecular defects in skeletal muscles that are associated with functional limitations in breast cancer. These include circulating cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and TGF-β altering the levels or function of myogenic molecules including PAX7, MyoD, and microRNAs through transcriptional regulators such as NF-κB, STAT3, and SMADs. Molecular defects in breast cancer may also include reduced muscle mitochondrial content and increased extracellular matrix deposition leading to energy imbalance and skeletal muscle fibrosis. This review highlights recent evidence that breast cancer-associated molecular defects mechanistically contribute to functional limitations and further provides insights into therapeutic interventions in managing functional limitations, which in turn may help to improve quality of life in breast cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; functional limitations; cachexia; skeletal muscle; microRNA breast cancer; functional limitations; cachexia; skeletal muscle; microRNA
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, R.; Nakshatri, H. Systemic Actions of Breast Cancer Facilitate Functional Limitations. Cancers 2020, 12, 194.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop