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Open AccessReview

Current Status and Future Perspectives of Immunotherapy for Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

1
Department of Urology, CHA University College of Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam 13496, Korea
2
Department of Urology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 06229, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010192
Received: 24 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antigens and Cancer Therapy)
Advancements in the understanding of tumor immunology in urothelial carcinoma (UC) have led to U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of five novel anti-programmed cell death protein-1/ligand 1 (PD-1/L1) checkpoint inhibitors. In 2017, the anti-PD-L1 antibody atezolizumab and the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab gained approval for use in cisplatin-ineligible patients with locally advanced and metastatic UC. These approvals were based on single-arm trials, IMvigor210 (atezolizumab) and KEYNOTE-052 (pembrolizumab). Since then, additional checkpoint inhibitors, including avelumab, durvalumab, and nivolumab, have gained approval. Preliminary results suggest additional benefits with combinations of these agents in both first- and subsequent-line therapies, inferring a paradigm shift in the future treatment approach in advanced UC. Ongoing clinical trials will investigate how to utilize predictive biomarkers for optimal patient selection and to incorporate immunotherapy into earlier lines of multimodal treatment. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the evidence supporting the use of checkpoint inhibitors for patients with UC, and highlight ongoing clinical trials that are investigating novel combinations of immunotherapy in various disease settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarkers; clinical trials; immune checkpoint inhibitor; immunotherapy; urothelial carcinoma biomarkers; clinical trials; immune checkpoint inhibitor; immunotherapy; urothelial carcinoma
MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, T.J.; Cho, K.S.; Koo, K.C. Current Status and Future Perspectives of Immunotherapy for Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review. Cancers 2020, 12, 192.

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