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Review

The Complexities of Metastasis

by 1,2,†, 3,4,5,†, 1,2, 3,4,5,*,‡ and 1,2,*,‡
1
The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst 2010, Australia
2
St Vincent’s Clinical School, University of New South Wales Medicine, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst 2010, Australia
3
INSERM UMR_S1109, Tumor Biomechanics, 67000 Strasbourg, France
4
Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg, France
5
Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), 67000 Strasbourg, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Co-senior authors.
Cancers 2019, 11(10), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101575
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 October 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metastatic Progression and Tumour Heterogeneity)
Therapies that prevent metastatic dissemination and tumor growth in secondary organs are severely lacking. A better understanding of the mechanisms that drive metastasis will lead to improved therapies that increase patient survival. Within a tumor, cancer cells are equipped with different phenotypic and functional capacities that can impact their ability to complete the metastatic cascade. That phenotypic heterogeneity can be derived from a combination of factors, in which the genetic make-up, interaction with the environment, and ability of cells to adapt to evolving microenvironments and mechanical forces play a major role. In this review, we discuss the specific properties of those cancer cell subgroups and the mechanisms that confer or restrict their capacity to metastasize. View Full-Text
Keywords: metastasis; heterogeneity; plasticity; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; biomechanics; circulating tumor cells (CTCs); extracellular vesicles; metastatic niche; epigenetics; CTC-clusters metastasis; heterogeneity; plasticity; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; biomechanics; circulating tumor cells (CTCs); extracellular vesicles; metastatic niche; epigenetics; CTC-clusters
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MDPI and ACS Style

San Juan, B.P.; Garcia-Leon, M.J.; Rangel, L.; Goetz, J.G.; Chaffer, C.L. The Complexities of Metastasis. Cancers 2019, 11, 1575. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101575

AMA Style

San Juan BP, Garcia-Leon MJ, Rangel L, Goetz JG, Chaffer CL. The Complexities of Metastasis. Cancers. 2019; 11(10):1575. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101575

Chicago/Turabian Style

San Juan, Beatriz P., Maria J. Garcia-Leon, Laura Rangel, Jacky G. Goetz, and Christine L. Chaffer. 2019. "The Complexities of Metastasis" Cancers 11, no. 10: 1575. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101575

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