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Cancers 2018, 10(12), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10120492

Recent Advances in Oncolytic Virotherapy and Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma: A Glimmer of Hope in the Search for an Effective Therapy?

1
Department of Fundamental and Applied Neurobiology, V. P. Serbsky National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology, the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Kropotkinsky lane 23, 119034 Moscow, Russia
2
Department of Medical Nanobiotechnologies, Medico-Biological Faculty, N. I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Ostrovitianov str. 1, 117997 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioblastoma: State of the Art and Future Perspectives)
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Abstract

To date, no targeted drugs, antibodies or combinations of chemotherapeutics have been demonstrated to be more efficient than temozolomide, or to increase efficacy of standard therapy (surgery, radiotherapy, temozolomide, steroid dexamethasone). According to recent phase III trials, standard therapy may ensure a median overall survival of up to 18–20 months for adult patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. These data explain a failure of positive non-controlled phase II trials to predict positive phase III trials and should result in revision of the landmark Stupp trial as a historical control for median overall survival in non-controlled trials. A high rate of failures in clinical trials and a lack of effective chemotherapy on the horizon fostered the development of conceptually distinct therapeutic approaches: dendritic cell/peptide immunotherapy, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and oncolytic virotherapy. Recent early phase trials with the recombinant adenovirus DNX-2401 (Ad5-delta24-RGD), polio-rhinovirus chimera (PVSRIPO), parvovirus H-1 (ParvOryx), Toca 511 retroviral vector with 5-fluorocytosine, heat shock protein-peptide complex-96 (HSPPC-96) and dendritic cell vaccines, including DCVax-L vaccine, demonstrated that subsets of patients with glioblastoma/glioma may benefit from oncolytic virotherapy/immunotherapy (>3 years of survival after treatment). However, large controlled trials are required to prove efficacy of next-generation immunotherapeutics and oncolytic vectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotherapy; oncolytic virotherapy; temozolomide; targeted drugs; glioma; dendritic cell vaccine; radiotherapy; TTFields; PD-L1; bevacizumab immunotherapy; oncolytic virotherapy; temozolomide; targeted drugs; glioma; dendritic cell vaccine; radiotherapy; TTFields; PD-L1; bevacizumab
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Stepanenko, A.A.; Chekhonin, V.P. Recent Advances in Oncolytic Virotherapy and Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma: A Glimmer of Hope in the Search for an Effective Therapy? Cancers 2018, 10, 492.

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