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Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 81;

Unconventional Electrochemistry in Micro-/Nanofluidic Systems

MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Manabu Tokeshi and Kiichi Sato
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 25 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 3 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis)
Full-Text   |   PDF [979 KB, uploaded 3 May 2016]   |  


Electrochemistry is ideally suited to serve as a detection mechanism in miniaturized analysis systems. A significant hurdle can, however, be the implementation of reliable micrometer-scale reference electrodes. In this tutorial review, we introduce the principal challenges and discuss the approaches that have been employed to build suitable references. We then discuss several alternative strategies aimed at eliminating the reference electrode altogether, in particular two-electrode electrochemical cells, bipolar electrodes and chronopotentiometry. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemistry; reference electrode; bipolar electrode; floating electrode; potentiometry electrochemistry; reference electrode; bipolar electrode; floating electrode; potentiometry

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sarkar, S.; Lai, S.C.S.; Lemay, S.G. Unconventional Electrochemistry in Micro-/Nanofluidic Systems. Micromachines 2016, 7, 81.

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