Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Unconventional Electrochemistry in Micro-/Nanofluidic Systems
Previous Article in Journal
Delay Kalman Filter to Estimate the Attitude of a Mobile Object with Indoor Magnetic Field Gradients
Previous Article in Special Issue
Magnetic Particle Plug-Based Assays for Biomarker Analysis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 80;

High-Resolution Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices for Sub-Microliter Sample Analysis

Department of Applied Chemistry, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522, Kanagawa, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Manabu Tokeshi and Kiichi Sato
Received: 18 March 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 2 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis)
PDF [6868 KB, uploaded 2 May 2016]


This work demonstrates the fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) suitable for the analysis of sub-microliter sample volumes. The wax-printing approach widely used for the patterning of paper substrates has been adapted to obtain high-resolution microfluidic structures patterned in filter paper. This has been achieved by replacing the hot plate heating method conventionally used to melt printed wax features into paper by simple hot lamination. This patterning technique, in combination with the consideration of device geometry and the influence of cellulose fiber direction in filter paper, led to a model µPAD design with four microfluidic channels that can be filled with as low as 0.5 µL of liquid. Finally, the application to a colorimetric model assay targeting total protein concentrations is shown. Calibration curves for human serum albumin (HSA) were recorded from sub-microliter samples (0.8 µL), with tolerance against ±0.1 µL variations in the applied liquid volume. View Full-Text
Keywords: µPAD; wax printing; inkjet printing; colorimetry; protein assay µPAD; wax printing; inkjet printing; colorimetry; protein assay

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tenda, K.; Ota, R.; Yamada, K.; Henares, T.G.; Suzuki, K.; Citterio, D. High-Resolution Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices for Sub-Microliter Sample Analysis. Micromachines 2016, 7, 80.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Micromachines EISSN 2072-666X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top