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Review

Extrinsically Conductive Nanomaterials for Cardiac Tissue Engineering Applications

1
Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
2
CIMER, Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
3
L.L. Levshin Institute of Cluster Oncology, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119992 Moscow, Russia
4
Industrial Engineering Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Valentina Mussi, Annalisa Convertino and Antonella Lisi
Micromachines 2021, 12(8), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12080914
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 25 July 2021 / Accepted: 28 July 2021 / Published: 31 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Surfaces and Devices for Biomedical Applications)
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the consequence of coronary artery thrombosis resulting in ischemia and necrosis of the myocardium. As a result, billions of contractile cardiomyocytes are lost with poor innate regeneration capability. This degenerated tissue is replaced by collagen-rich fibrotic scar tissue as the usual body response to quickly repair the injury. The non-conductive nature of this tissue results in arrhythmias and asynchronous beating leading to total heart failure in the long run due to ventricular remodelling. Traditional pharmacological and assistive device approaches have failed to meet the utmost need for tissue regeneration to repair MI injuries. Engineered heart tissues (EHTs) seem promising alternatives, but their non-conductive nature could not resolve problems such as arrhythmias and asynchronous beating for long term in-vivo applications. The ability of nanotechnology to mimic the nano-bioarchitecture of the extracellular matrix and the potential of cardiac tissue engineering to engineer heart-like tissues makes it a unique combination to develop conductive constructs. Biomaterials blended with conductive nanomaterials could yield conductive constructs (referred to as extrinsically conductive). These cell-laden conductive constructs can alleviate cardiac functions when implanted in-vivo. A succinct review of the most promising applications of nanomaterials in cardiac tissue engineering to repair MI injuries is presented with a focus on extrinsically conductive nanomaterials. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac tissue engineering; conductive nanomaterials; myocardial infarction; cardiovascular disease; ischemic tissue repair cardiac tissue engineering; conductive nanomaterials; myocardial infarction; cardiovascular disease; ischemic tissue repair
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ul Haq, A.; Carotenuto, F.; Di Nardo, P.; Francini, R.; Prosposito, P.; Pescosolido, F.; De Matteis, F. Extrinsically Conductive Nanomaterials for Cardiac Tissue Engineering Applications. Micromachines 2021, 12, 914. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12080914

AMA Style

Ul Haq A, Carotenuto F, Di Nardo P, Francini R, Prosposito P, Pescosolido F, De Matteis F. Extrinsically Conductive Nanomaterials for Cardiac Tissue Engineering Applications. Micromachines. 2021; 12(8):914. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12080914

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ul Haq, Arsalan, Felicia Carotenuto, Paolo Di Nardo, Roberto Francini, Paolo Prosposito, Francesca Pescosolido, and Fabio De Matteis. 2021. "Extrinsically Conductive Nanomaterials for Cardiac Tissue Engineering Applications" Micromachines 12, no. 8: 914. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12080914

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