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Article

Current Stimulation of the Midbrain Nucleus in Pigeons for Avian Flight Control

1
Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Biomimetic Robot Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
3
Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
4
Department of Biomedical Science, Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
5
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
6
Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nam-Trung Nguyen
Micromachines 2021, 12(7), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12070788
Received: 16 April 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 28 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Implantable Neural Microsystems)
A number of research attempts to understand and modulate sensory and motor skills that are beyond the capability of humans have been underway. They have mainly been expounded in rodent models, where numerous reports of controlling movement to reach target locations by brain stimulation have been achieved. However, in the case of birds, although basic research on movement control has been conducted, the brain nuclei that are triggering these movements have yet to be established. In order to fully control flight navigation in birds, the basic central nervous system involved in flight behavior should be understood comprehensively, and functional maps of the birds’ brains to study the possibility of flight control need to be clarified. Here, we established a stable stereotactic surgery to implant multi-wire electrode arrays and electrically stimulated several nuclei of the pigeon’s brain. A multi-channel electrode array and a wireless stimulation system were implanted in thirteen pigeons. The pigeons’ flight trajectories on electrical stimulation of the cerebral nuclei were monitored and analyzed by a 3D motion tracking program to evaluate the behavioral change, and the exact stimulation site in the brain was confirmed by the postmortem histological examination. Among them, five pigeons were able to induce right and left body turns by stimulating the nuclei of the tractus occipito-mesencephalicus (OM), nucleus taeniae (TN), or nucleus rotundus (RT); the nuclei of tractus septo-mesencephalicus (TSM) or archistriatum ventrale (AV) were stimulated to induce flight aviation for flapping and take-off with five pigeons. View Full-Text
Keywords: pigeon; stereotactic surgery; bird flight; current stimulation; 3D motion tracking pigeon; stereotactic surgery; bird flight; current stimulation; 3D motion tracking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jang, J.; Baek, C.; Kim, S.; Lee, T.-K.; Choi, G.-J.; Shim, S.; Yun, S.; Jung, Y.; Lee, C.-E.; Ko, S.; Seo, K.; Seo, J.-M.; Won, M.-H.; Kim, S.J.; Song, Y.-K. Current Stimulation of the Midbrain Nucleus in Pigeons for Avian Flight Control. Micromachines 2021, 12, 788. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12070788

AMA Style

Jang J, Baek C, Kim S, Lee T-K, Choi G-J, Shim S, Yun S, Jung Y, Lee C-E, Ko S, Seo K, Seo J-M, Won M-H, Kim SJ, Song Y-K. Current Stimulation of the Midbrain Nucleus in Pigeons for Avian Flight Control. Micromachines. 2021; 12(7):788. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12070788

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jang, Jungwoo, Changhoon Baek, Sunhyo Kim, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Gwang-Jin Choi, Shinyong Shim, Seunghyeon Yun, Younginha Jung, Chae-Eun Lee, Seunghyung Ko, Kangmoon Seo, Jong-Mo Seo, Moo-Ho Won, Sung J. Kim, and Yoon-Kyu Song. 2021. "Current Stimulation of the Midbrain Nucleus in Pigeons for Avian Flight Control" Micromachines 12, no. 7: 788. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12070788

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