Microfluidic systems have been widely explored based on microfluidic technology, and it has been widely used for biomedical screening. The key parts are the fabrication of the base scaffold, the construction of the matrix environment in the 3D system, and the application mechanism. In recent years, a variety of new materials have emerged, meanwhile, some new technologies have been developed. In this review, we highlight the properties of high throughput and the biomedical application of the microfluidic chip and focus on the recent progress of the fabrication and application mechanism. The emergence of various biocompatible materials has provided more available raw materials for microfluidic chips. The material is not confined to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and the extracellular microenvironment is not limited by a natural matrix. The mechanism is also developed in diverse ways, including its special physical structure and external field effects, such as dielectrophoresis, magnetophoresis, and acoustophoresis. Furthermore, the cell/organ-based microfluidic system provides a new platform for drug screening due to imitating the anatomic and physiologic properties in vivo. Although microfluidic technology is currently mostly in the laboratory stage, it has great potential for commercial applications in the future.
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