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Open AccessArticle

Ameliorative Effects of Neutral Electrolyzed Water on Growth Performance, Biochemical Constituents, and Histopathological Changes in Turkey Poults during Aflatoxicosis

1
National Autonomous University of Mexico-Superior Studies Faculty at Cuautitlan (UNAM-FESC), Master in Animal Production and Health Sciences, Cuautitlan Izcalli 54714, Mexico
2
National Autonomous University of Mexico-Superior Studies Faculty at Cuautitlan (UNAM-FESC), Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Department of Biological and Livestock Sciences, Cuautitlan Izcalli 54714, Mexico
3
National Autonomous University of Mexico-Superior Studies Faculty at Cuautitlan (UNAM-FESC), Campus 4, Multidisciplinary Research Unit L14 (Food, Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicosis), Cuautitlan Izcalli 54714, Mexico
4
Esteripharma SA de CV, Atlacomulco 50450, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ting Zhou
Toxins 2017, 9(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9030104
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
Different in vitro and in silico approaches from our research group have demonstrated that neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) can be used to detoxify aflatoxins. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of NEW to detoxify B-aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2) in contaminated maize and to confirm detoxification in an in vivo experimental model. Batches of aflatoxin-contaminated maize were detoxified with NEW and mixed in commercial feed. A total of 240 6-day-old female large white Nicholas-700 turkey poults were randomly divided into four treatments of six replicates each (10 turkeys per replicate), which were fed ad libitum for two weeks with the following dietary treatments: (1) control feed containing aflatoxin-free maize (CONTROL); (2) feed containing the aflatoxin-contaminated maize (AF); (3) feed containing the aflatoxin-contaminated maize detoxified with NEW (AF + NEW); and (4) control feed containing aflatoxin-free maize treated with NEW (NEW). Compared to the control groups, turkey poults of the AF group significantly reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio and mortality rate; whereas turkey poults of the AF + NEW group did not present significant differences on productive parameters. In addition, alterations in serum biochemical constituents, enzyme activities, relative organ weight, gross morphological changes and histopathological studies were significantly mitigated by the aflatoxin-detoxification procedure. From these results, it is concluded that the treatment of aflatoxin-contaminated maize with NEW provided reasonable protection against the effects caused by aflatoxins in young turkey poults. View Full-Text
Keywords: maize; aflatoxins; neutral electrolyzed water; detoxification; turkey maize; aflatoxins; neutral electrolyzed water; detoxification; turkey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gómez-Espinosa, D.; Cervantes-Aguilar, F.J.; Del Río-García, J.C.; Villarreal-Barajas, T.; Vázquez-Durán, A.; Méndez-Albores, A. Ameliorative Effects of Neutral Electrolyzed Water on Growth Performance, Biochemical Constituents, and Histopathological Changes in Turkey Poults during Aflatoxicosis. Toxins 2017, 9, 104.

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