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Open AccessArticle

Absence of Cyanotoxins in Llayta, Edible Nostocaceae Colonies from the Andes Highlands

Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Departamento Biomédico, Facultad Ciencias de la Salud, and Centre for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CeBiB, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile
Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental- CIIMAR, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 382;
Received: 8 April 2020 / Revised: 25 May 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Algal Toxins: Monitoring and Toxicity Profile)
Edible Llayta are cyanobacterial colonies consumed in the Andes highlands. Llayta and four isolated cyanobacteria strains were tested for cyanotoxins (microcystin, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin and β-N-methylamino-L-alanine—BMAA) using molecular and chemical methods. All isolates were free of target genes involved in toxin biosynthesis. Only DNA from Llayta amplified the mcyE gene. Presence of microcystin-LR and BMAA in Llayta extracts was discarded by LC/MS analyses. The analysed Llayta colonies have an incomplete microcystin biosynthetic pathway and are a safe food ingredient. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; Llayta; microcystin; Nostoc cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; Llayta; microcystin; Nostoc
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Galetović, A.; Azevedo, J.; Castelo-Branco, R.; Oliveira, F.; Gómez-Silva, B.; Vasconcelos, V. Absence of Cyanotoxins in Llayta, Edible Nostocaceae Colonies from the Andes Highlands. Toxins 2020, 12, 382.

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