Next Article in Journal
Editorial on the Special Issue “Comorbidities in Chronic Kidney Disease”
Previous Article in Journal
Absence of Cyanotoxins in Llayta, Edible Nostocaceae Colonies from the Andes Highlands
Open AccessArticle

Genes Encoding the Virulence and the Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterotoxigenic and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli Isolated from Diarrheic Calves

1
Department of Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
2
Department of Bacteriology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza 12618, Egypt
3
Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
4
Clinical Laboratories Sciences Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Hafr Albatin University, Hafr Al Batin 31991, Saudi Arabia
5
Bioproducts Research Chair, Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
6
Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt
7
Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University-Cairo- Egypt, Cairo 11556, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060383
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 17 May 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 10 June 2020
Calf diarrhea is one of the considerable infectious diseases in calves, which results in tremendous economic losses globally. To determine the prevalence of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) incriminated in calf diarrhea, with special reference to Shiga- toxins genes (stx1 and stx2) and enterotoxins genes (lt and sta) that govern their pathogenesis, as well as the virulence genes; eaeA (intimin) and f41(fimbrial adhesion), and the screening of their antibiogram and antimicrobial resistance genes; aadB, sul1, and bla-TEM, a total of 274 fecal samples were collected (April 2018–Feb 2019) from diarrheic calves at different farms in El-Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. The bacteriological examination revealed that the prevalence of E. coli in diarrheic calves was 28.8%. The serotyping of the isolated E. coli revealed 7 serogroups; O26, O128, O111, O125, O45, O119 and O91. Furthermore, the Congo red binding test was carried out, where 89.8% of the examined strains (n = 71) were positive. The antibiogram of the isolated strains was investigated; the majority of E. coli serotypes exhibit multidrug resistance (MDR) to four antimicrobial agents; neomycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, and amikacin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the prevalence of the virulence genes; stx1, stx2 lt, sta, f41 and eaeA, as well as the antimicrobial resistance genes; aadB, sul1, and bla-TEM. The prevalence of STEC was 20.2% (n = 16), while the prevalence of ETEC was 30.4% (n = 24). Briefly, the Shiga toxins genes; stx1 and stx2, are the most prevalent virulence genes associated with STEC, which are responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease and helped by the intimin gene (eaeA). In addition, the lt gene is the most prevalent enterotoxin gene accompanied by the ETEC strains, either alone or in combination with sta and/or f41 genes. The majority of pathogenic E. coli incriminated in calf diarrhea possesses the aadB resistance gene, followed by the sul1 gene. Enrofloxacin, florfenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and ampicillin-sulbactam, are the most effective antimicrobial agents against the isolated STEC and ETEC strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: ETEC; STEC; diarrhea; calves; virulence genes; antimicrobial resistance genes ETEC; STEC; diarrhea; calves; virulence genes; antimicrobial resistance genes
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Algammal, A.M.; El-Kholy, A.W.; Riad, E.M.; Mohamed, H.E.; Elhaig, M.M.; Yousef, S.A.A.; Hozzein, W.N.; Ghobashy, M.O.I. Genes Encoding the Virulence and the Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterotoxigenic and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli Isolated from Diarrheic Calves. Toxins 2020, 12, 383.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop