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Open AccessArticle

Activation of the IRE1α Arm, but not the PERK Arm, of the Unfolded Protein Response Contributes to Fumonisin B1-Induced Hepatotoxicity

1
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory for Food Non-thermal Processing, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
2
College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yunamingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12010055 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Previous studies by us or others have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was activated by fumonisin 1 (FB1) exposure, which is considered to be a critical event in the FB1-induced toxic effect. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying FB1-induced ER stress-mediated liver toxicity remain elusive. The objectives of the present study were designed to address the following issues: (1) the contribution of each arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR); (2) the downstream targets of ER stress that mediated FB1-induced liver toxicity; and (3) the relationship between ER stress and oxidative stress triggered by FB1. We also investigated whether the inhibition of ER stress by its inhibitor could offer protection against FB1-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo, which has not been critically addressed previously. The results showed that the activation of the IRE1α axis, but not of the PERK axis, of UPR contributed to FB1-induced ER stress-mediated hepatocyte toxicity; the activation of the Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial pathway lay downstream of IRE1α to trigger mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in response to FB1; FB1-induced oxidative stress and ER stress augmented each other through a positive feedback mechanism; tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA)-mediated ER stress inactivation is an effective approach to counteract FB1-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. The data of the present study allow us to better understand the mechanisms of FB1-induced hepatotoxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fumonisin B1; endoplasmic reticulum stress; IRE1α; oxidative stress; hepatotoxicity; autophagy Fumonisin B1; endoplasmic reticulum stress; IRE1α; oxidative stress; hepatotoxicity; autophagy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, X.; Zhang, E.; Yin, S.; Zhao, C.; Fan, L.; Hu, H. Activation of the IRE1α Arm, but not the PERK Arm, of the Unfolded Protein Response Contributes to Fumonisin B1-Induced Hepatotoxicity. Toxins 2020, 12, 55.

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