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Neurotoxic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Propolis in the Presence of Copper Ions is Mediated through Enhanced Production of ROS and Stimulation of Caspase-3/7 Activity

1
Division of Molecular Medicine, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Department of Psychology, Catholic University of Croatia, Ilica 242, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050273
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
Elevated amounts of copper are considered to be contributing factor in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases as they promote oxidative stress conditions. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) against copper-induced neuronal damage. In cultured P19 neuronal cells, EEP exacerbated copper-provoked neuronal cell death by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and through the activation of caspase-3/7 activity. EEP augmented copper-induced up-regulation of p53 and Bax mRNA expressions. Neurotoxic effects of EEP were accompanied by a strong induction of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression and decrease in the expression of c-fos mRNA. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) prevented detrimental effects of EEP, whereas SP600125, an inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), exacerbated EEP-induced neuronal cell death. Quercetin, a polyphenolic nutraceutical, which is usually present in propolis, was also able to exacerbate copper-induced neuronal death. Our data indicates a pro-oxidative and apoptotic mode of EEP action in the presence of excess copper, wherein ROS/p53/p38 interactions play an important role in death cascades. Our study also pointed out that detailed pharmacological and toxicological studies must be carried out for propolis and other dietary supplements in order to fully recognize the potential adverse effects in specific conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethanolic extract of propolis; copper toxicity; p53; p38 and JNK signaling; P19 neurons ethanolic extract of propolis; copper toxicity; p53; p38 and JNK signaling; P19 neurons
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Radovanović, V.; Vlainić, J.; Hanžić, N.; Ukić, P.; Oršolić, N.; Baranović, G.; Jazvinšćak Jembrek, M. Neurotoxic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Propolis in the Presence of Copper Ions is Mediated through Enhanced Production of ROS and Stimulation of Caspase-3/7 Activity. Toxins 2019, 11, 273.

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