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Toxins 2019, 11(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030169

Bioaccumulation and Distribution of Indospicine and Its Foregut Metabolites in Camels Fed Indigofera spicata

1
Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), The University of Queensland, Health and Food Sciences Precinct, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia
2
Alliance of Research and Innovation for Food (ARIF), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Negeri Sembilan, Kuala Pilah Campus, Negeri Sembilan 72000, Malaysia
3
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Health and Food Sciences Precinct, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Natural Toxins)
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Abstract

In vitro experiments have demonstrated that camel foregut-fluid has the capacity to metabolize indospicine, a natural toxin which causes hepatotoxicosis, but such metabolism is in competition with absorption and outflow of indospicine from the different segments of the digestive system. Six young camels were fed Indigofera spicata (337 µg indospicine/kg BW/day) for 32 days, at which time three camels were euthanized. The remaining camels were monitored for a further 100 days after cessation of this indospicine diet. In a retrospective investigation, relative levels of indospicine foregut-metabolism products were examined by UHPLC-MS/MS in plasma, collected during both accumulation and depletion stages of this experiment. The metabolite 2-aminopimelamic acid could be detected at low levels in almost all plasma samples, whereas 2-aminopimelic acid could not be detected. In the euthanized camels, 2-aminopimelamic acid could be found in all tissues except muscle, whereas 2-aminopimelic acid was only found in the kidney, pancreas, and liver tissues. The clearance rate for these metabolites was considerably greater than for indospicine, which was still present in plasma of the remaining camels 100 days after cessation of Indigofera consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: indospicine; 2-aminopimelamic acid; 2-aminopimelic acid; in vivo; foregut metabolites; camel; food safety indospicine; 2-aminopimelamic acid; 2-aminopimelic acid; in vivo; foregut metabolites; camel; food safety
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Netzel, G.; Tan, E.T.T.; Yin, M.; Giles, C.; Yong, K.W.L.; Al Jassim, R.; Fletcher, M.T. Bioaccumulation and Distribution of Indospicine and Its Foregut Metabolites in Camels Fed Indigofera spicata. Toxins 2019, 11, 169.

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