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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Development of a QuEChERS-Based UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Six Alternaria Toxins in Grapes

1
Institute for Agro-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Protected Horticultural Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201403, China
2
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;
3
Organic Contaminants and Additives, Sciensano, Tervuren 3080, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020087
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
A simple and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of alternariol (AOH), altenuene (ALT), tentoxin (TEN), altenusin (ALS), tenuazonic acid (TeA), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in grapes was developed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure with the extraction by acetonitrile and purification by sodium chloride (0.5 g) and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (0.5 g) was established to recover the six Alternaria toxins. After validation by determining the linearity (R2 > 0.99), recovery (77.8–101.6%), sensitivity (limit of detection in the range of 0.03–0.21 μg kg−1, and limit of quantification in the range of 0.09–0.48 μg kg−1), and precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 12.9%), the analytical method was successfully applied to reveal the contamination state of Alternaria toxins in grapes. Among 56 grape samples, 40 (incidence of 71.4%) were contaminated with Alternaria toxins. TEN was the most frequently found mycotoxin (37.5%), with a concentration range of 0.10–1.64 μg kg−1, followed by TeA (28.6%) and AOH (26.8%). ALT (10.7%), AME (3.6%), and ALS (5.4%) were also detected in some samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the Alternaria toxins contamination in grapes in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alternaria toxins; grape; modified QuEChERS; UHPLC-MS/MS Alternaria toxins; grape; modified QuEChERS; UHPLC-MS/MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, W.; Fan, K.; Nie, D.; Meng, J.; Huang, Q.; Yang, J.; Shen, Y.; Tangni, E.K.; Zhao, Z.; Wu, Y.; Han, Z. Development of a QuEChERS-Based UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Six Alternaria Toxins in Grapes. Toxins 2019, 11, 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020087

AMA Style

Guo W, Fan K, Nie D, Meng J, Huang Q, Yang J, Shen Y, Tangni EK, Zhao Z, Wu Y, Han Z. Development of a QuEChERS-Based UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Six Alternaria Toxins in Grapes. Toxins. 2019; 11(2):87. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020087

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Wenbo; Fan, Kai; Nie, Dongxia; Meng, Jiajia; Huang, Qingwen; Yang, Junhua; Shen, Yuanyuan; Tangni, Emmanuel K.; Zhao, Zhihui; Wu, Yongjiang; Han, Zheng. 2019. "Development of a QuEChERS-Based UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Six Alternaria Toxins in Grapes" Toxins 11, no. 2: 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020087

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