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Toxins 2019, 11(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020089

A Novel Phospholipase A2 Isolated from Palythoa caribaeorum Possesses Neurotoxic Activity

1
Departamento de Química de Biomacromoléculas, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México C.P. 04510, Mexico
2
Unidad de Proteómica, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica (INMEGEN), Periférico Sur 4809, Col. Arenal Tepepan, Tlalpan, Ciudad de México 14610, Mexico
3
Programa de Investigación de Producción de Biomoléculas, Departamento de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70228, Ciudad de México C.P. 04510, Mexico
4
Sección de Química Orgánica, Departamento de Ciencias Químicas Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Estado de México C.P. 54740, Mexico
5
Banco de Tumores, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Ciudad de México C.P. 14070, Mexico
6
Laboratorio de Aminoácidos Excitadores, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Ciudad de México C.P. 14269, Mexico
7
Laboratorio de Bioquímica Genética, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Secretaría de Salud, Ciudad de México C.P. 04530, Mexico
8
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología CONACYT, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Secretaría de Salud, Ciudad de México C.P. 04530, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Zoanthids of the genus Palythoa are distributed worldwide in shallow waters around coral reefs. Like all cnidarians, they possess nematocysts that contain a large diversity of toxins that paralyze their prey. This work was aimed at isolating and functionally characterizing a cnidarian neurotoxic phospholipase named A2-PLTX-Pcb1a for the first time. This phospholipase was isolated from the venomous extract of the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum. This enzyme, which is Ca2+-dependent, is a 149 amino acid residue protein. The analysis of the A2-PLTX-Pcb1a sequence showed neurotoxic domain similitude with other neurotoxic sPLA2´s, but a different catalytic histidine domain. This is remarkable, since A2-PLTX-Pcb1a displays properties like those of other known PLA2 enzymes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cnidaria; venom; phospholipase A2; neurotoxin; Palythoa caribaeorum cnidaria; venom; phospholipase A2; neurotoxin; Palythoa caribaeorum
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Cuevas-Cruz, M.; Lazcano-Pérez, F.; Hernández-Guzmán, U.; Díaz de la Vega-Castañeda, K.H.; Román-González, S.A.; Valdez-Cruz, N.A.; Velasco-Bejarano, B.; Colín-González, A.L.; Santamaría, A.; Gómez-Manzo, S.; Marcial-Quino, J.; Arreguín-Espinosa, R. A Novel Phospholipase A2 Isolated from Palythoa caribaeorum Possesses Neurotoxic Activity. Toxins 2019, 11, 89.

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