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Natural Occurrence of Beauvericin and Enniatins in Corn- and Wheat-Based Samples Harvested in 2017 Collected from Shandong Province, China

NHC Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021, China
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Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Totals of 158 corn and corn-based samples and 291 wheat and wheat-based samples from Shandong province, China in 2017 were analyzed for five mycotoxins including beauvericin (BEA), enniatin A (ENA), enniatin A1 (ENA1), enniatin B (ENB), and enniatin B1 (ENB1) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BEA was the predominant toxin detected, followed by ENB, ENA1, ENA, and ENB1. Corn and corn-based samples were more easily contaminated by BEA with an average concentration of 65.26 µg/kg, compared with that in wheat and wheat-based samples (average = 0.41 µg/kg). Concentrations of BEA, ENA, and ENB1 in corn kernels, flours, and flakes were significantly different (Kruskal–Wallis Test, p < 0.05), as well as for BEA, ENA, ENB, and ENB1 in wheat kernels, flours, and noodles (Kruskal–Wallis test, p < 0.05). Furthermore, 59.5% (94/158) and 59.8% (174/291) corn- and wheat-based samples were co-contaminated by at least two mycotoxins, respectively. Positive correlations in concentrations were observed in corn between levels of ENA and ENB1, ENA and ENB, ENA1 and ENB1, as well as in wheat between BEA and ENA, BEA and ENA1, BEA and ENB, BEA and ENB1, ENA and ENA1, ENA and ENB, ENA and ENB1, ENA1 and ENB, ENA1 and ENB1, and ENB and ENB1. These results demonstrate that co-contamination of BEA and enniatins (ENNs) in corn- and wheat-based samples from Shandong, China is very common. More data on the contamination of five mycotoxins in cereal and cereal-based samples nationwide are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: BEA and ENNs; corn and corn-based samples; wheat and wheat-based samples; China; HPLC-MS/MS; China BEA and ENNs; corn and corn-based samples; wheat and wheat-based samples; China; HPLC-MS/MS; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Han, X.; Xu, W.; Zhang, J.; Xu, J.; Li, F. Natural Occurrence of Beauvericin and Enniatins in Corn- and Wheat-Based Samples Harvested in 2017 Collected from Shandong Province, China. Toxins 2019, 11, 9.

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