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Toxins 2018, 10(9), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10090372

A New Concept to Secure Food Safety Standards against Fusarium Species and Aspergillus Flavus and Their Toxins in Maize

1
Department of Field Crops Research, NARIC, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
2
Cereal Research Nonprofit Ltd., 6726 Szeged, Hungary
3
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
4
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia
5
Institute of Food Technology, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia
6
Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Commercial maize hybrids are exposed to different degrees of ear infection by toxigenic fungal species and toxin contamination. Their resistance to different fungi and toxin relationships are largely unknown. Without this knowledge, screening and breeding are not possible for these pathogens. Seven- to tenfold differences were found in resistance to Fusarium spp., and there was a five-fold difference in ear coverage (%) in response to A. flavus. Three hybrids of the twenty entries had lower infection severity compared with the general means for toxigenic species. Three were highly susceptible to each, and 14 hybrids reacted differently to the different fungi. Differences were also observed in the toxin content. Again, three hybrids had lower toxin content in response to all toxigenic species, one had higher values for all, and 16 had variable resistance levels. Correlations between infection severity and deoxynivalenol (DON) content were 0.95 and 0.82 (p = 0.001) for F. graminearum and F. culmorum, respectively. For fumonisin and F. verticillioides ear rot, the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was 0.45 (p = 0.05). Two independent isolates with different aggressiveness were used, and their mean X values better described the resistance levels. This increased the reliability of the data. With the introduction of this methodological concept (testing the resistance levels separately for different fungi and with two isolates independently), highly significant resistance differences were found. The resistance to different fungal species correlated only in certain cases; thus, each should be tested separately. This is very useful in registration tests and post-registration screening and breeding. This would allow a rapid increase in food and feed safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium culmorum; Fusarium graminearum; Fusarium verticillioides; Aspergillus flavus; resistance; mycotoxins; complex resistance to pathogens and toxins; food safety Fusarium culmorum; Fusarium graminearum; Fusarium verticillioides; Aspergillus flavus; resistance; mycotoxins; complex resistance to pathogens and toxins; food safety
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Szabo, B.; Toth, B.; Toth Toldine, E.; Varga, M.; Kovacs, N.; Varga, J.; Kocsube, S.; Palagyi, A.; Bagi, F.; Budakov, D.; Stojšin, V.; Lazić, S.; Bodroža-Solarov, M.; Čolović, R.; Bekavac, G.; Purar, B.; Jocković, D.; Mesterházy, A. A New Concept to Secure Food Safety Standards against Fusarium Species and Aspergillus Flavus and Their Toxins in Maize. Toxins 2018, 10, 372.

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