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Toxins 2018, 10(9), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10090354

Development of a Sensitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Rapid Gold Nanoparticle Immunochromatographic Strip for Detecting Citrinin in Monascus Fermented Food

1
Graduate Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan
4
Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methods for Mycotoxins Detection)
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Abstract

Antibodies against citrinin (CTN) were generated from rabbits, which were injected with CTN-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). This work involved the development of a sensitive competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cdELISA) and a rapid gold nanoparticle immunochromatographic strip (immunostrip) method for analyzing CTN in Monascus-fermented food. CTN at a concentration of 5.0 ng/mL caused 50% inhibition (IC50) of CTN-horseradish peroxidase (CTN-HRP) binding to the antibodies in the cdELISA. The capable on-site detection of CTN was accomplished by a rapid antibody-gold nanoparticle immunostrip with a detection limit of 20 ng/mL and that was completed within 15 min. A close inspection of 19 Monascus-fermented foods by cdELISA confirmed that 14 were contaminated with citrinin at levels from 28.6–9454 ng/g. Further analysis with the immunostrip is consistent with those results obtained using cdELISA. Both means are sensitive enough for the rapid examination of CTN in Monascus-fermented food products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrinin; ELISA; gold nanoparticle immunochromatographic strip; Monascus fermented food Citrinin; ELISA; gold nanoparticle immunochromatographic strip; Monascus fermented food
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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    Description: Supplementary Fig 1. Various dilutions of extraction (1:10; 1:20; 1:50) of red yeast samples 1-6 were subjected to the immunostrip tests.
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Wu, S.-W.; Yu, Y.-A.; Liu, B.-H.; Yu, F.-Y. Development of a Sensitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Rapid Gold Nanoparticle Immunochromatographic Strip for Detecting Citrinin in Monascus Fermented Food. Toxins 2018, 10, 354.

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